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FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 






LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 










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TIKE 



Victorian Naturalist: 



THE JOURNAL & MAGAZINE 



OF THE 



APRIL, 1896, TO APRIL, 1897. 



1bOH. JEDitor: MR. F. Q. A. BARNARD. 



The Author of each Article is responsible for the facts and 
opinions recorded. 



Melbourne: 

WALKER, MAY & 00., PRINTERS, MAOKILLOP STREET 

(OFF 390 LITTLE COLLINS STREET). 

1897. 



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3 3- r Vfc f ">-? ^Qu*s\ "i-*f 



Quasi. " 



INDEX TO VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



VOL. XIII. 



Acacia glandulicarpa - 

Albatross, Flight of - 

Albatross Island, Trip to 

Artamu8 personatus 

J rtamus superciliosus 

Ascent of Mt. Peter Botte, 
Queensland - 

Australia, Ornithological 

Notes from Central - 

Australian Plants, Descrip- 
tions of New 111,117, 

Acacia - - - 112, 

Eucalyptus - - 147, 

Bacchus Marsh, Miocene 

Deposits of - - 

Banana, A New Guinea Wild 

Baw Baw, Under Eastern - 

Beetle, A Fungus on a 

Birds of Box Hill 

Books, Notices of - 64, 

" Concise Handbook of 

British Birds " 
• Insectivorous Birds of 
New South Wales " - 
' ' Introduction to Miner- 
alogy" - 
' ' Sketch of ISl atural History 
of Australia" 
Botanical Trip to Mt. Baw 

Baw - - 

Botrytis angulata 
Box Hill Birds, Notes on 
Calvert Exploring Expedition 
Campephaga, Nidification of 
Cicadas - 
Collecting in Biverina 
Collecting Trip to Murray 

and Loddon 
Eggs from North Queensland 
Errata - 



PAGE 

146 

11 

3 

37 
37 

- 151 



58 

147, 
168 
117 
168 

80 
53 
93 
56 
103 
120 

64 

64 

120 

120 

93 

56 
103 

28 
135 
119 

72 

127 

63 

134 



Eucalyptus MacuJata, Notes 

on 150 

Fantail, Nest of Black and 

White - - - 56 

Field Naturalists' Club— 

Annual Report - - 29 

Conversazione - - 34 

Exhibition Wild Flowers - 85 
Excursions — 

Fern Tree Gully - - 142 
Nar Nar Goon - - 139 
Studley Park - - 46 
Willsrnere 2 

Proceedings, 1, 17, 29, 45, 58, 
69,85,101, 113, 125, 137, 149 
Finches, Plumage of - - 126 
Flight of Albatross - 1 1 

Flight of Sea Birds - - 49 
Flora of Victoria, Contribu- 
tions to - - 146, 167 
Fluke, Intermediate Hosts 

of - 24 

Fungus on a Beetle - - 56 
Fungus, An Entomogenous - 99 
Geological Correction, A - 28 
Geological Notes on Toom- 

bullup Goldfield - - 107 
Habits of Wood Swallows - 36 
Ialmenus myrsilus - - 118 
Intermediate Hosts of Fluke 24 
Kent Group, A Sericornis 

from - - - - 84 
Knot, The - - - - 55 
Lacinularia elongata - - 22 
Lyctma cyrilus - - - 138 
Mallacoota, Trip to - - IS 
Microscopic Work, Turpen- 
tine in - 16, 2.S 
Mimicry in Birds and Insects 147 
Miocene Deposits of Bacchus 

Marsh - - - - 80 



Moths, A Catalogue of Vic- 
torian - - 41, 65, 
CEcophoridee - 
Murray, Collecting Trip to - 
Murray, Birds from 
Murray, Plants from - 
Musa, Notes on Genus 
New Guinea Banana, A 
Nidification of Jardine's 

Campephaga 
Obituary Notices — 

Forbes-Leith, T. A. 
Mueller, Baron Sir F. 
von - 87, 

Oologists' Reunion, An 
Ornithological Notes bo, 56, 



Parrot, an Extinct 
Plants, New Australian 111, 
146, 147, 
Plumage of Robins, Notes on 
Ptilorlris paradisea 
Queensland, Ascent of Mt. 

Peter Botte - - - 151 



I'Ai.i: 

121 

41 

127 

133 

134 

53 

53 

135 

139 

101 
63 

, 58, 
112 
112 

117, 
168 
115 
145 



Queensland, Eggs from 

North - 63 

Raptores - 58 

"Red Rain " - - -125 
Rifle Bird, Nest and Egg - 145 
Riverina, Collecting in - 72 

Robins, Notes on Plumage of 115 
Rotifer, a New - 22 

Sea Birds, Flight of - - 49 
Sericornis gidaris - - 84 

Sitella, Orange-winged - 138 
St. Helena - - - - 100 
sfijin Acrociliata - - 167 

Thalassogeron cairius - - 10 
Toombuilup Goldfield - -107 
Trip to Albatross T. - 3 

Trip to Mallacoota - - 18 
Turpentine in Microscopic 

Work - - - - 16 
Victorian Moths - 41, 65, 121 
Victorian Plants, New 146, 150, 

167 
Voluta Roadknighti - - 33 
Wood Swallows, Notes on - 36 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Baron Sir F. von Mueller 
Cysts of Fluke Embryos 
Eggs from North Queensland 
Nests of Bittern - 
Nest and Egg of Rifle Bird - 



I'AGE 

85 
25 
63 

77 
145 



New Rotifer, Lacinularia 

elongata - - - 22 
Shy Albatross on Nest - 1 

Summit of Mt. Peter Botte, 

Queensland - - - 158 



THE 



|1 i c tori an gtaturaUet* 



Vol. XIII.— No. 1. APRIL, 1896. No. 149 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, 13th April, 189G. The 
president, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A., occupied the 
chair, and some 60 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

Reports of the Club excursions to Studley Park and Willsmere 
were received from the respective leaders, Mr. T S. Hall, M.A., 
and Messrs. W. and J. Stickland. At the former excursion the 
many interesting geological features of the Yarra basin were 
pointed out, and the members present were delighted with the 
lesson in field geology they received. The Willsmere excursion 
was also well attended, and the ponds in the locality yielded fair 
results. 

PAPERS. 

The paper on " Intermediate Hosts of Fluke," by Rev. W. 
Fielder, was postponed, owing to the rather sudden death of 
Mrs. Fielder, and on the motion of the Chairman the hon. 
secretary was directed to convey to Mr. Fielder the deep sym- 
pathy of the Club in his sad bereavement. 

By Mr. J. Shephard, entitled " A New Rotifer." The paper 
dealt with the important discovery of a new species of Lacinularia, 
to which the name of L. elongata was provisionally given. 
Drawings of several species for comparison were shown, and also 
specimens preserved in formalin under the microscope. 

EXHIBITION OF SPECIMENS. 

The following were the principal exhibits of the evening : — By 
Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. — Plant of Polypodium serpens, from 
Queensland. By Miss Cochrane. — Entomogenous fungus, Cordy- 
ceps Taylori, from Cape Otway. By Mr. A. Coles. — Australian 
Bittern, Botaurus Australis ; and Minute Bittern, Ardetta 
pusilla. By Mr. C. French, F.L.S. — Nests, larvae, and perfect 
insects, male and female, of Procession Moth, Teara con- 
traria, from the Wimmera [Mr. E. Anderson informs me 
that this insect, the identity of which was formerly doubtful, 
has been reared from the larvoe in the larger suspended nests, 
by Mr. Froggatt, of the Technological Museum, Sydney. — C.F.j 



o^* 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



By Mr. C. French, jun. — Remarkable double nest of the 
Black Fantail, collected by Master W. Shepherd at Western 
Port, Victoria ; egg of New South Wales Lyre Bird, Menura 
superba ; and orchid, Prasophyllum despectans, collected at 
Western Port, being a new locality for this comparatively rare 
Victorian orchid. By Mr. J. Shephard. — Lacinularia elongata, 
new species of rotifer, in illustration of paper. By Mr. G. E. 
Shepherd. — Yellow-legged Spoonbill, Plat aha Jiavipes. 
After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



EXCURSION TO WILLSMERE. 

Favoured by a fine though warm afternoon, on Saturday, 7th 
March, a party of about ten members made their way to Willsmere 
Park, near Kew,and spent two or three hours pleasantly in searching 
the ponds at that place. Owing possibly to recent rains, animal 
life seemed much less abundant than usually is the case, but the 
customary forms of Polyzoa, sponges, Hydra, and Entomostraca 
were taken. As at this season last year, the sponges were found 
to contain gemmules. For the first time in our experience 
Volvox was plentiful in the locality. As regards rotifers, the 
beautiful clusters of Lacinularia pedunculate, and L. natans were 
numerous : they appear to have found their way to the first and 
largest of the ponds only recently, as we noticed them there for 
the first time a few months back. All the usual tube-building 
genera were represented, and amongst these a gigantic specimen 
of Floscularia coronetta deserved special notice. Free-swimming 
forms were scarce, though the pretty little Green Bag Rotifer, 
Sacculus viridis, and a few more common species were taken. 
Special mention may perhaps be made of a rotifer which lives 
parasitic in the Volvox, sailing about in the water with no effort 
of its own, while it calmly devours its host. Of this one 
specimen was taken here, the only other place where we have 
caught it being a pond at Box Hill. Infusoria were poorly 
represented, the only ones almost being the chlorophyll-bearing 
Paramecium bursaria, and the Stentors. Many of the latter 
were conspicuous by their colouration, which was pale pink — a 
peculiarity we do not remember having seen mentioned in any 
text-book. 

Microscopic plant life was present in abundance. In addition 
to the common filamentous algge, Spirogyra and Tyndaridea, 
Oscillatoriae, Nostoc, Diatoms, and an unusual variety of Desmids 
occurred. These beautiful little green plants, which would well 
repay much more study than they seem to receive here, are very 
numerous just now at Willsmere. Amongst the filamentous forms 
found were Hyalotheca dissiliens, with its broad gelatinous sheath ; 
the curiously twisted Desmidium Swartzii ; and the chain-like 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Sphserozosma. The very large and handsome species Closterium 
lunula, half-moon shaped, shows, when examined with careful 
illumination, the currents of protoplasm streaming to and from 
the ends. Others of the same genus taken were the Beaked Clos- 
terium, C rostratum, running out at each end into a long, slender, 
clear prolongation, and the Striated Closterium, C. striolatum. 
Of the genus Cosmarium we noted the Pearl-bearing Cosmarium, 
C. margaritifervm ; C. Broomei, squarish in shape ; and C. 
biocuJatum ; besides, perhaps, others. Of Euastrum there were 
one or two species — E. didelta, and perhaps E. ansatum. The 
long, narrow, rod-like genus Docidium was represented by one 
species — D. baculum. Of the queerly-shaped Staurastrum there 
were a couple or more species, while the spiny genus Xanthidium 
gave us one — X. armatum. — W. and J. Stickland. 



FURTHER NOTES FROM ALBATROSS ISLAND- 
NARRATIVE OF A SECOND TRIP. 

By J. Gabriel, F.L.S. 
(Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, \3th January, 1890.^ 
We left Queen's Wharf at noon on 17th October in the s.s. 
Bellinger, bound for the Hunter Group of Islands, Bass Strait, 
where we hoped to obtain additional information re the 
nidification and flight of the Shy Albatross, found there. My 
companion, Mr. H. P. C. Ashworth, was also very anxious to 
replace the valuable photographs which he had so unfortunately 
lost through the swamping of the dingey on his last trip. He had 
also a forlorn hope of recovering the box, which contained some 
money. We had a fair run across the Strait, of course paying the 
usual contributions on the way, being hastened by the character- 
istic aroma of ten tons of bonedust which was stowed on deck. 
Early morning, however, found us in better humour, and soon 
after breakfast we were abreast of the Three Hummocks, with 
Circular Head, or " The Nut," in the distance straight ahead. We 
were soon interested in watching the birds, which began to 
muster up in large numbers. We were able to distinguish the 
Shy and Sooty Albatrosses, Pacific and Jamieson's Gulls, 
Mutton Birds, Richardson's Skua, &c. Our old friends the 
Gannets were seen in considerable numbers, while the pretty 
Cape Pigeon {Daption capensis), with its barred markings, 
appeared at frequent intervals. The little Stormy Petrel 
(Procellaria fregata) would also occasionally appear. Being thus 
among our feathered friends we felt quite at home. In a few 
hours we were steaming around " The Nut," and about noon 
landed at Stanley. Our bond fides were kindly vouched 
for to the Customs officer by a resident whose acquaintance 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



we had made on board. Certainly our luggage did look 
suspicious, with imposing boxes containing potatoes, onions, 
bread, personal effects, guns, cameras, tent, &c. 

According to arrangement, Captain Mullins soon appeared, 
and we at once decided to start the following morning in his 22 
feet centre-boarder The Fox. Captain Mullins fortunately left the 
schooner Martha, in which Messrs. Ashworth and Le Souef 
crossed the Strait last year, before she capsized in the Rip in 
February last, and in which Captain Stuty and Frank, who 
accompanied them, lost their lives. After placing our luggage on 
the little craft we went for a long walk along the beach and 
into the adjoining scrub, where we recognized the dulcet notes 
of Selby's Thrush ; but we were too early for eggs. The 
Tasmanian Flycatcher, Horseshoe Honeyeater, Long-tailed 
Superb Warbler, Scrub Quail, &c, were also seen. The pretty 
little Azolla was growing luxuriantly in the ponds which we 
passed, and growing on the roadside was a perfect carpet 
of white daisies. The scrub was inclined almost parallel to 
the hillsides where exposed to the east wind, which must blow 
very severely here at times. During our stay at Stanley we 
resided at the Temperance Coffee Palace, a comfortable, homely, 
but curiously planned house, whose architect must have taken his 
design from Noah's Ark. 

Early morning on the 19th October found us quite refreshed 
and ready to start, and soon the little Fox was merrily sailing 
round " The Nut," from which a Black-cheeked Falcon swooped 
down to show his anger at our intrusion. Passing two outlying 
rocks with the euphonious names of Bull and Cow, and rounding 
a dangerous sunken reef off the headland, we made for Robbins 
Island, which was to be our first place of call. Our attention 
was soon attracted to a large number of birds in the distance, 
whose movements puzzled us for some time, but as we approached 
we were soon enlightened, and were treated to a magnificent sight. 
Heedless of our approach, several hundreds of Gannets were 
working a shoal of fish. I have frequently watched these birds 
diving for fish in our bay, but here I saw them in company for 
the first time, and truly it was an exciting scene. A continuous 
stream of birds were diving into the shoal, and as they rose flying 
around in a circle, only to dive again until they were gorged, when 
they would retire, but only to make room for others who were 
continually arriving from the distance. There is doubtless a 
method in this circular flight of theirs — very likely it tends to 
keep the fish together. Nor did they leave off till we sailed right 
through them, and then, I believe, it was the fish that made 
away. Our artist took several snap-shots with a kodak, but I am 
afraid they were not quick enough for satisfactory pictures. The 
Gannets must consume an enormous quantity of fish during these 



TfiE VlCTOfclAN NATURALIST. 



raids. Several which we found swimming about afterwards were 
so gorged that they allowed us to almost cut them down with the 
boat before they would rise and then only to alight a little 
distance away. We anchored about midday in a snug little 
creek on Robbins Island, and went over in the ''flatty" to two 
small islets near, expecting to find Oyster-Catchers and Gulls 
breeding, but found we were too early. We had some difficulty 
in getting back, as the tide was running out like a sluice, and 
several times the " flatty " was aground, necessitating our dragging 
her over the stones, which, in our bare feet, was rather a treat. 

We were not long in making for the Reids' homestead. The 
good folks were glad to see us, and soon made us welcome, and 
during our stay supplied us with some valuable notes. After 
refreshing ourselves, we took a scamper along the beach for a few 
miles. The large number of whale bones attracted our attention, 
and we were shown an old " trying-out " station, the cleared sand 
track on the beach showing where the whales had been drawn up 
at high tide. This must, in bygone days, have been a busy spot, 
from the number of bones which were lying around. Further 
along we were shown what they called a " sea-devil," which had 
been washed up. This we found to be a female Australian Fur 
Seal (Euotaria cinerea). Captain Mullins informed us that he 
passed through a shoal of some hundreds of large seals while 
coming across from King Island. A correspondent has since 
informed me that he has had a very successful sealing season, 
which confirms what the captain told us. 

Returning from the beach to the homestead we noticed the 
pretty little Emu Wren (Stipitiims malachurus) in considerable 
numbers. Robbins Island seems to be a perfect aviary for both 
land and sea birds, but as we were too early for eggs we con- 
tented ourselves with collecting notes for future reference. We 
gather that the island is a place of call for many birds during 
their migratory flight between Australia and Tasmania. Observa- 
tions on this subject would be of much interest. Just before our 
arrival the Martins were seen at dusk clinging on to the trees in 
bunches like a swarm of bees. Along the flats we were con- 
tinually flushing Quail, and on the beach the Dotterels, both 
Hooded and Red-capped, were seen in numerous flocks, the 
latter just beginning to lay in little ledges under the sandy bank. 
It is a curious fact that the birds on the larger islands lay some 
weeks earlier than those on the outlying islands. 

The tide serving, about noon the next day we left our kind 
hosts, and sailing past the east side, were soon abreast of Walker's 
Island. On a headland is the Sea Eagle's eyrie which Mr. 
Atkinson found some years back, but it is now tenantless. Our 
Captain Mullins was there last season with a companion, who 
shot one of the birds, which fell badly wounded at his feet. The 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Captain finished the bird by hitting it on the head with a 
stick. He then slung it upon his shoulder, but in a few minutes 
the bird came to and dug its talons into the Captain, who, in 
a rage, gave the bird another battering. It was again mounted 
upon his shoulder, but in half an hour the pesty thing came 
to and again clawed the Captain in a tender part. This time 
that eagle was killed in earnest and taken home to Duck 
River, where it is now to be seen alive and well. The wind 
now began to freshen, and as we passed the Petrels we had 
to reef down. We had hoped to reach Chimney Corner, on 
Three-Hummock Island, but, much to our chagrin, a nasty sea 
forced us to run before the wind to East Telegraph Bay. To 
add to our discomfort the boat began to leak, and we had to 
keep baling all the way. Mr. Burgess, who leases this island, 
has a farm at East Telegraph Bay, and we were shown around by 
his brother-in-law, who was in charge. The ground is of a rich 
chocolate character, and has, so far, given satisfactory returns for 
the labour expended on it. Poultry also do very well, having no 
enemies. To escape the sandflies, " skeeters," and other live 
cattle we elected to sleep on the boat, but at 4 a.m. the next 
morning we were roused up and had to clear out, the wind 
having changed during the night. We were soon out of the 
jobble, and made round the north side of the island. We were 
destined to have more trouble, however, for the wind died away 
to a dead calm, after which it again freshened into a stiff gale, 
leaving us beating up the passage between the Three Hummocks 
and the West Hunter. On the starboard tack off the West 
Hunter we had to take in our reefs, and shortly afterwards to 
lower sail and hoist the storm sail. During this fuss we were 
unfortunate in losing one of our oars and a boathook overboard, 
and in trying to regain them we split our jib into three pieces, 
necessitating the hoisting of a spitfire. With this scandalized 
sail we beat into Shephard's Bay for shelter. We went ashore 
for a few hours, having the mail for Mr. James, the solitary 
resident, who hospitably cooked some wallaby for us, and being 
awfully hungry we declared it to be very good. The wind and 
sea having abated, we soon ran across to Chimney Corner, on 
the Three Hummocks, where we were warmly welcomed by the 
Burgess family, and well pleased to get ashore after our rough 
trip around. The baling especially had been very trying, so The 
Fox was beached for repairs. We were now only ten miles from 
Albatross Island, and intended to slip out at the first opportunity, 
and then, if the weather continued fine, to attempt a landing on 
the Black Pyramid, sixteen miles further out into the ocean. 
Little did we reckon on the boisterous weather which was to 
prevail right up to the last day of our stay, so that we began to 
despair that we would ever reach even Albatross Island. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



On 22nd October repairs to the boat was the order of the day, 
Captain Mullins being kindly assisted by the Burgesses. A 
plaster was placed over the worst leak, and some tarred oakum 
jammed into the others. During the day we made short trips 
inland, but found nothing of more interest than a fresh Strepera's 
nest, which we watched for ten days, but the birds were too wary, 
and waited till we left before laying. Cattle and sheep thrive 
fairly well at the homestead, notwithstanding the cottonweed, 
two species of which are very abundant. But the introduction of 
clovers and lucernes has worked wonders, both here and at King 
Island, so that a large cattle trade is springing up. 

On 23rd October we went for a walk across the island to East 
Telegraph Bay, some seven miles. Following a track between 
the sandhills which fringed the coast we soon came to a different 
class of country to what we expected. All along the coastline we 
had met with almost impenetrable scrub, consisting of ti-tree and 
such-like ilk, but inland we passed through forests of what is 
locally called bastard bluegum, alternating with lanes of swamp 
ti-tree, which, being festooned with the pretty bush Clematis, 
pleasingly reminded us of Gippsland scenery. A little further on 
we came to a sandy plateau, commanding a fine view around. 
On our right the Big Hummock, with its commanding height of 
790 feet, was to be seen ; to the left was an immense swamp, 
while immediately around us the country was ablaze with the 
familiar flowering shrubs which adorn our own heath grounds. 
Among others we noted Sprengelia incarnata, Pultencea humilis, 
P. daphnoides, Aotus villosa, Pimelea humilis, Slyphelia Aus- 
trcdis, and the orchids Thelymitra longifolia, Caladenia carnea, 
C. latifolia and Pterostylis cticu/Iata. Our track next led us 
through a dense belt of the ever present ti-tree, and then, to 
our surprise, into a lovely little gully, in which tree ferns grew 
luxuriantly. The total absence of mistletoes on these islands 
has caused Baron von Mueller to remark in his report on 
the plants brought from King Island by the Club expedition : — 
"It does not seem that mistletoes have been noticed by 
the party, the genus Loranthus, though represented by more 
than one species quite to the southern extremities of the 
Australian continent, having never yet been traced to Tas- 
mania." It is satisfactory to know that this may now be 
explained by the fact that the Swallow Dicseum, which bird 
has been shown by Mr. Ashworth to be the sole agent in 
dispersing the mistletoe, is confined to Australia. 

Arriving at East Telegraph Bay, we startled our solitary 
farmer having his midday smoke. After dinner he led us around 
nesting. A Boobook Owl flew out of a dead tree, which was 
climbed, with no result. An unfinished nest of the Flame-breasted 
Robin showed us that we were too early. We were pleased to 



8 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

see the Spotted Diamond Bird, Pardalotus punctatus, breeding 
in holes in a sandbank; it does not seem to have been recorded 
before from the islands. On the return journey we paid a flying 
visit to the large swamp ; but as we could see no signs of bird 
life, owing to the dense scrub, we retraced our steps. When we 
came to the sandhills, with their Boobyalla and Honeysuckle 
trees, we decided to make a short cut to the beach to gather 
shells — a decision we soundly regretted ten minutes afterwards. 
However, by crawling on all fours the greater part of the distance, 
we at last broke through. 

On 24th October, the weather being still too unsettled to 
venture on the waters, we went for a long walk towards West 
Telegraph Bay, but came across nothing more interesting than a 

9 in. x 2 in. Oregon plank, which, being of no scientific interest, 
we left behind. A crow's nest containing four fresh eggs was 
found in the top of a ti-tree growing in a swamp. 

On 25th October, the weather being still very rough, we spent 
the day in wandering along the beach in search of shells and 
polyzoa, and in taking lessons in crayfish pot making. The 
Crayfish (Palinurus Lalandii) industry is now a considerable one 
among the islands of the Strait, but these fine fish are becoming 
fast decimated through the suicidal policy of allowing the female 
fish to be taken during the spawning season. Of course, fish 
with spawn are not allowed in the markets, but this is easily 
overcome by the fishermen removing the spawn. Some few 
fishermen do not take spawning fish, but their good intentions are 
frustrated by others who take all. Our friends on the island 
suggest what I consider the only remedy, viz., that female fish be 
not allowed to be sold during the spawning months, say from 1st 
September to 31st December. Our Club has been useful in the 
past in placing insectivorous birds upon the protected list, and I 
do not think it would be out of our province to move in this 
matter. The female fish are readily recognized by the extra 
appendages on the tail flap which hold the spawn in position, and 
also by the subchelate claws of the fifth or last legs. 

On 26th October, the wind abated a little, and we sailed across 
to Stack Island, a distance of ten miles, to see an eyrie of the 
Sea Eagle, Halicutus leucogaster, but we found the birds had 
not yet laid. A crow's nest found on a ledge near the top of a 
rocky pinnacle was also empty. This island is rented from the 
Tasmanian Government by Captain Mullins, who anticipates a 
good harvest of Mutton Birds this coming season. He tells us 
that the Tasmanian Government now prohibits the sale of eggs, 
which I think is a wise action. When we consider that 
half a million birds are taken yearly in the Furneaux Group 
alone, there must in time be an appreciable difference. Nor 
must we look to the robbery of eggs alone as a destructive 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 9 

influence, for from several correspondents I hear that this 
season thousands upon thousands of these useful birds have been 
found dead upon our shores, from Phillip Island to nearly as high 
as Sydney Heads. Can any of our members suggest an apparent 
cause for this destruction ? The harvest of eggs this season at 
Phillip Island has been a complete failure. Some have suggested 
the heavy gales prevailing early in the season ; but these birds are 
in their element in the roughest of weather, and I can hardly 
accept this as a reason. We have always been told that the birds, 
after cleaning out their holes in September, are not seen again till 
November, when they come to lay; but to our surprise they came 
in at dusk as usual. We had beached the boat on the sand for 
comfort's sake, and as it was now raining heavily we slept on 
board. Early in the morning the tide came in, and we had to 
turn out into the cold sea and get her afloat. After breakfast we 
left for Penguin Island, where, with a little difficulty, we landed. 
Scrambling through the saltbush and tumbling through Mutton 
Bird holes, we made our way to the Pelican rookery, noting on 
the way the Little Grass Bird (Sphenosacus gramineus). The 
Pelicans made out to sea as we approached, so we contented 
ourselves with taking photographs of the rookery. The eggs 
proved to be fresh — indeed, several clutches were not completed. 
Returning to the boat, we hastened on board, as the wind was 
fast rising, and, hoisting sail, we headed for Chimney Corner again. 
On the way up we had another unpleasant baling experience, 
necessitating the beaching of The Fox for examination. We 
found that the plaster which had been put on was a " porous 
plaster," and there was nothing for it the next day but a renewal 
of repairs. At night we had a haul of about ten dozen fine garfish. 
This proved an acceptable change from Mutton Bird, which, how- 
ever, we had got to relish at our meals. 

Early in the morning of the 29th October we started for 
Albatross Island, and after crossing the " pot-boil " north of the 
West Hunter, we were not long in approaching this lonely rock. 
Bold and rugged it is indeed, and doubly so to-day, for the wind 
had changed round to the north and rolled a nasty sea into the 
landing-place. We could see the Albatrosses sitting on their 
nests upon the shelving rocks, but after standing off and on for 
some time in the hope of a change, we had to swallow our dis- 
appointment and return. The following day an easterly gale 
raged all day, raising such a heavy swell that it was with little 
hope of success that we started again at dawn on 31st October. 
The " pot-boil " was very lively, and tossed our little boat about 
like a cockle shell. After a couple of miles of this we despaired of 
getting on the rock, but as we had the day before us we held on, 
and when within a few miles of the island our skipper declared 
we would get on after all we cheered up considerably. Shortly 
after we were anchored amongst the kelp in comparatively smooth 



10 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

water. Dreading the backwash of the cove where the dingey was 
capsized last year, we scrambled on to the ledges of an outlying 
rock, and, following a Penguin track, were soon through the caves. 
In the gulch way we were surprised to see a Tasmanian Flycatcher 
and a Bronze Cuckoo, with his resplendent green back. Climbing 
over the hill, the Black-cheeked Falcons showed by their clatter 
that they had eggs, and a large Wedge-tailed Eagle soared away 
overhead. We were rejoiced to find the Albatross rookery in full 
swing. It was the beau ideal of a photographic day, with little 
wind and light fleecy clouds, and our artist lost no time in pro- 
ceeding to work. As to myself, I was soon arguing the point 
with the birds re possession of eggs, the powerful mandibles on 
the one hand, and my foot and a bucket on the other being the 
argumentative media. These beautiful birds sit gracefully on 
their nests, but when disturbed they flounder about in quite a 
ludicrous manner, strongly in contrast to their glorious appearance 
at sea when they so majestically sweep through the air on ex- 
panded pinions. After its egg was taken the silly bird could not 
make out where it had got to, and would put its head into the 
nest to look for it. I have little to add to the descriptive account 
so ably given last year by Mr. H. P. C. Ashworth of the nidifica- 
tion of these birds. The eggs taken by me, with three exceptions, 
contained chicks in all stages of growth. From this I gather that 
the laying season must commence late in September and early in 
October, with an incubation of probably eight weeks. The Hon. 
Walter Rothschild has lately reviewed the nomenclature of the 
Albatrosses and has referred this bird to the genus Thalassogeron. 
The bird breeding on the Snares in New Zealand differs from 
Gould's type, T. cautas, and has been named T. Salvini, after 
that eminent authority on oceanic birds. 

There can be no doubt of the identity of our species with 
Gould's T. cautus, and Albatross Island is, therefore, the only 
known breeding haunt. As Mr. Rothschild observed to Sir 
Walter Buller, " Why, every group of islands seems to have its 
own species of albatross." The flag was now flying as a signal 
for us to leave, and so busy had our artist been that he forgot all 
about looking for the treasure lost last year, and, indeed, did not 
have time to look at the spot. We had had no food for ten 
hours, and were surprised to find we had been six hours on the 
island. On regaining the boat, a decisive " Give me a hand with 
the chain " caused us to postpone the luxury of " tucker." Oh ! 
that 25 fathoms of chain, wasn't it heavy ! As we got near the 
West Hunter the wind died away, and we lost the tide, and drifted 
slowly back. Just before dark we came across an Albatross, a 
Mutton Bird, and a Cape Pigeon quarrelling over a Cuttle-fish. 
As we approached the Cape Pigeon was left in possession. In 
the moonlight we set the fire-pot going, and made coffee, waiting 
for the turn of the tide. Music, also, helped to pass the time, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 11 

our only audience being a Cape Pigeon which flitted about. 
About midnight we got a breeze, and arrived at Chimney Corner 
shortly after i a.m. After a final breakfast in the morning with 
our kind friends we left for Stanley with a fair wind. Just as we 
reached " The Nut," a stiff sou'-wester gave us the worst wetting 
of the trip. At 9 p.m. on 2nd November we left in the Bellinger 
for Melbourne, and being by this time good sailors we had the 
satisfaction of sleeping while our fellow-passengers persisted in 
being sick. 

THE FLIGHT OF THE ALBATROSS. 

By H. P. C. Ashworth. 

(Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 10th February, 1896.^ 

When a paper was read before the Royal Society of Victoria last 
year by Mr. Le Souef and myself on the birds found breeding 
in the Hunter Group, the president, Professor Kernot, M.A., 
remarked that he was sorry we had not more fully dealt with the 
important question of the flight of the albatross, and my main 
objects in revisiting Albatross Island were to make observations 
on this subject, and also to replace the photographs which were 
lost through the capsizing of our dingey. I was further induced 
to make the investigation by the great amount of misconception 
by nearly all who have written on the subject, either in the 
principles involved or in the description of the movements of the 
bird. The subject has attracted the attention especially of those 
engaged in the problem of constructing flying machines ; and, 
indeed, the apparent contradiction of mechanical principles in the 
flight of a bird without perceptible movement of its wings — that 
is, without the expenditure of any external work — is sufficiently 
startling. If we know anything of the mechanical conditions, it 
may be taken for granted that no bird can glide with outstretched 
motionless wings in a wind which is both uniform and horizontal 
without losing either in vertical elevation or in velocity. The 
fact that an albatross does glide for hours together without move- 
ment of the wings shows that the solution of the problem lies 
altogether in a study of the movements of the wind, and not in 
any peculiar property inherent in the bird itself. 

A review of some of the theories advanced is given by Sir Walter 
Buller in "Trans. New Zealand Inst.," vol. xxvi. He says: — 
" It seems to me that we have not yet solved the problem in- 
volved in the flight of the albatross — a rapid, well-sustained motion, 
ever against the wind, with scarcely any visible movement of the 
wings. There are some very sensible observations on the subject 
in Dr. Bennett's ' Gatherings of a Naturalist in Australasia.' 
Professor Hutton has grappled with the mechanical principles it 
rests upon, and the Duke of Argyll has treated the question in a 
masterly way in his ' Reign of Law.' But, after all, can it be 



12 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

said that the problem has been satisfactorily solved ? I think not. 
Sir James Hector believed with myself that it might be explained 
by some peculiar mechanism in the wing of the bird, and at a 
meeting of our society some years ago he elaborated a very 
ingenious theory on the subject, exhibiting at the same time an 
albatross wing specially prepared to illustrate his argument. In 
1889 he took the trouble to send to England a fine adult 
specimen in spirits of wine for critical examination by an expert. 
I forwarded it to the well-known comparative anatomist, Dr. 
Hans Gadow, F.R.S., at Cambridge, but he reported that he could 
not discover any departure from the normal character in the 
structure of the wing ; and so the matter rests at present." 

All the older theories ignored the fundamental condition laid 
down above, and on the evidence of imperfect observers scientists 
spent their energies in futile efforts to solve the so-called soaring 
problem, not recognizing our old friend perpetual motion in a 
different guise. Mr. L. Hargrave, a well-known experimenter in 
aerodynamics in New South Wales, says on this point — "No 
amount of observation of birds will solve the soaring problem ; it 
can alone be done by making some kind of apparatus that will 
advance against the wind without losing its velocity." I must 
reply that no apparatus will ever be made to fulfil this condition 
unless provided with motive power, such as the revolving screw in 
Mr. Maxim's machine ; and if an apparatus be ever made that will 
gain motion relatively to the earth (which is a very different thing) 
without the expenditure of power, it will have to take advantage 
of the same variations in the wind as a soaring bird. The latter 
achievement is however very problematical, though Mr. Maxim's 
successful experiments seem to promise flying machines provided 
with motive power in the near future. 

A most extraordinary theory is advanced in a letter to Nature, 
October, 1894, by Mr. A. Kingsmill, who found, on developing 
a snap shot at an albatross, that the wings in the picture were 
vertical, although the indication on the camera showed them at 
the moment of exposure apparently at full stretch. The bird was 
probably in the act of turning to one side, but his conclusion that 
it seems to entirely upset the accepted theories as to the flight of 
this bird involves the fantastic suggestion that the movement of 
the wings is too quick to be perceptible to the human eye. 

In his account of Tristan da Cunha, in " Linn. Trans.," vol. xii., 
Captain Carmichael relates that he threw a Mollyhawk (Diomedea 
culminata) over a cliff and saw it fall like a stone without attempt- 
ing to flap. On my last visit to Albatross Island I repeated this 
experiment on some of the Shy Albatrosses, but after falling a 
short distance they all found their wings and soared away. I 
have said that it is only by a consideration of the movements of 
the wind that a solution of the problem is possible, and here 
it may be noted that soaring is only practised when there is a 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 13 

stiff breeze — indeed, the stronger the wind the more motionless 
are the wings, and the less necessity for resorting to flapping. 
Two theories based on the movements of the wind have been 
propounded — the first that a soaring bird is supported by upward 
currents, that is, that the wind is not horizontal ; the second that 
the wind is not uniform in velocity, so that a bird can by 
manoeuvring take advantage of this want of uniformity, and it 
was to test which of these theories is supported by the actual 
movements of soaring albatrosses that my observations were 
made. The first is championed by no less an authority than Mr. 
Hiram Maxim, and therefore deserves some notice. In an 
article in the North American Review for October, 1895, he 
states that Professor Froude, the mathematician, observed the 
flight of that greatest of all flyers, the albatross, and admitted 
that no existing mathematical formula could account for the 
soaring of these birds, and proceeds as follows : — " Air near the 
surface of the earth becomes heated and ascends in columns. 
The velocity with which these vertical currents move is, say, from 
1 to 6 miles an hour, and they are quite independent of any 
other horizontal current that the air may have as relates to 
the earth at the same time. Suppose the velocity of a bird 
to be 30 miles per hour, this would account for the whole 
phenomenon of soaring on an upward current of only 1^ 
miles an hour." Now, do these vertical currents exist ? I 
think not. The smoke of steamships exhibits practical uni- 
formity in a vertical direction, while Mr. Maxim supposes the air 
divided into alternatively ascending and descending columns ; 
and to account for the birds not being caught in the latter 
currents, he advances an ingenious but unproven theory that 
birds have some very delicate sense of feeling and touch to 
ascertain whether they are falling or rising in the air, just 
as deep-sea fish can tell by the pressure on the bladder 
whether they are approaching the surface. Mr. Maxim goes on 
to say : — "Albatrosses and seagulls find a resting place, and follow 
the ship for days at a time without any apparent exertion, but 
whenever they find themselves in front of the ship or at one side 
they have to work their passage very much as other birds do." 
This statement is incorrect as far as albatrosses are concerned ; 
they never move continually in a straight line, but are always 
circling and sweeping up and down the wind, alternately rising 
and falling. This fact is the strongest argument against the 
theory, for these continual movements between the upper and 
the lower strata of the air would have no object. I do not deny 
that upward currents exist, but Mr. Maxim has undoubtedly 
given the principle a too extended application. I have noticed 
albatrosses keeping to the leeward of the crest of a large 
wave, where the wind is undoubtedly deflected upwards. Herr 
Lilianthal, who has used an aeroplane to soar several hundred 



14 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



yards, by throwing himself off a height against the wind, makes 
the astonishing statement that the wind is always inclined upward; 
but this position is untenable. 

Before passing on to the second theory it will be well to con- 
sider how a bird is supported in the air, and what are the forces 
to be overcome. Premising that the bird must always have some 
velocity relatively to the surrounding air — that is, that the wind 
must always be in its face (for nothing is more helpless than a bird 
borne with the wind) — it is evident that there will always be a 
certain amount of resistance to its progress. This resistance, ac- 
cording to the known laws of wind pressure, is directly proportional 
to the square of the relative velocity, and it must be remembered 
that all motion is relative, so that the conditions are the same 
whether the bird has a certain velocity relatively to still air or 
the air has the same velocity and the bird is still. This atmos- 
pheric resistance will reduce the velocity of the bird relatively to 
the surrounding air, therefore a gain in relative velocity will 
overcome the resistance. But there is another force to be over- 
come, and that is gravity. To balance this, the pressure of the 
wind underneath the bird must be equal to its weight, unless the 
bird be rising, when it is greater, or falling, when it is less ; but 
in rising or falling the pressures due to its vertical motion acting 
on its full sail area have also to be taken into account. To 
obtain a pressure underneath equal to its weight, an albatross 
must incline its body against the wind till the pressure is equal 
to 2}^ lbs. per square foot. This is exactly the weight of Mr. 
Maxim's machine, and his experiments showed that it requires a 
velocity of 40 miles an hour to lift it, the aeroplane being inclined 
7^ degrees. Now, the pressure at right angles to the wind 
would only be 6 lbs. per square foot, and Mr. Maxim accounts 
for the large results obtained with slightly inclined planes to the 
advantage of moving forward on to new air, the inertia of which 
had not been disturbed. Professor Proctor give a similar 
explanation, that when moving forward at a high velocity a 
bird does not rest on the same air long enough for the air to be 
set in motion. To Mr. Irminger, a Danish engineer, belongs 
the credit of giving the true explanation — that the lifting force 
is largely a negative pressure or suction on the upper surface 
due to rarefaction of the air. He also determined the fact that a 
narrow aeroplane, such as the wings of an albatross, is twice as 
effective as a broad one. We are now in a position to under- 
stand how a bird can by manoeuvring take advantage of a want of 
uniformity in the wind to gain relative velocity, which we have 
seen is necessary for the support of the bird in the air and can 
also be utilized in overcoming atmospheric resistance. The 
theory was first advanced in Nature, vol. xxix., by Lord Rayleigh, 
and independently by Dr. Hubert Airy, to account for the con- 
tinuous rising of eagles, pelicans, &c, as observed in Assam by 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 15 

Mr. S. E. Peal. It rests on the fact that the velocity of the wind 
always increases with the height above the ground, owing to the 
lower strata being retarded by friction. Now in ascending 
against such a wind, a bird will be meeting stronger currents in 
its face as it rises — that is, it will be gaining in relative velocity, 
and in descending with the wind they are also gaining in relative 
velocity, since the lower strata really have a velocity, as compared 
with the upper strata, in the opposite direction. A bird may 
circle around indefinitely on this principle, the circles being 
inclined downwards to leeward, provided the successive gains in 
relative velocity balance the resistances to its motion. The 
ascent against the wind is made with inclined body, so that the 
pressure underneath is greater than the weight of the bird ; but 
the atmospheric resistance is also great, and the ascent is made 
as quickly as possible. On wheeling around to descend with the 
wind the relative velocity will be small and the lifting pressure 
less than the weight of the bird. In falling into the slowly 
moving strata it will be really meeting a stronger wind in its face, 
having itself a velocity at least equal to that of the upper stratum, 
and will also be aided by the upward pressure due to its vertical 
descent. We possess no experiments to determine this latter 
pressure, but it is probably greater than if the bird were falling 
with the same velocity in still air. An albatross does not, 
however, move always in circles ; it seems to make best progress 
in a direction across the wind, alternately rising quickly against 
and across the wind and then gliding downwards with the wind 
and across in the same direction as before, the resultant motion 
being at right angles to the wind. It may be asked what 
evidence is there that this variation in the velocity of the wind 
actually exists. In 1889, at the Eiffel Tower, in Paris, experi- 
ments were made upon the relation between the velocity of the 
wind at the top and at a station 70 feet from the ground. It was 
found that the velocity at the top was from two to five times as 
great as at the lower station. In Nature, 22nd April, 1886, Mr. 
E. D. Archibald records observations made with kite-wire sus- 
pended anemometers, which show that the velocity in high winds 
was 38 per cent, greater at 250 feet above the ground than at 100 
feet above, and 56 per cent, greater at 550 feet up, and also that 
there is a steadily diminishing increase up to a height of 1,300 
feet. It has been contended that the progressive increase in the 
velocity of the wind does not extend sufficiently above the earth 
to account for the soaring of eagles at great heights, and that they 
may gain in relative velocity by always facing gusts ; but the 
regularity of their movements seems to preclude this view, and it 
must be remembered that these birds take very large sweeps, and 
are much lighter in proportion to their supporting area than an 
albatross, and can take advantage of smaller differences in velocity. 
The difference between the velocity of the wind in the troughs of 



16 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

an ocean swell and that above the crests of the waves must be 
very great, and an albatross, in descending with the wind into the 
trough or ascending against it above the crests, gains an increment 
of relative velocity equal to this difference. That the wind above 
the crests has a high velocity relatively to the waves is shown by 
the familiar " white horses," and fishermen well know the danger 
of losing the wind in the bottom of a trough. 

In conclusion, the albatross is a skilled aerial gymnast, which 
has learned by experience to take advantage of the various 
inequalities in the wind to gain in velocity relatively to the 
surrounding air. I hope at some future time to pay a visit to 
the island when the young birds are learning the art. It is 
known that in the islands south of New Zealand they take a full 
year of practice, and have to be driven off the nests by the old 
birds when they return to breed. With a knowledge of this 
theory, which is confirmed by every movement, to watch the 
flight of an albatross has a never-failing interest. 



ON THE USE OF TURPENTINE IN MICROSCOPIC 

WORK. 
Having lost several carefully prepared specimens of insects by 
using as a final clearing agent the ordinary turpentine of the 
shops, I was led to inquire into the matter, when I found that 
the trade article is not the turpentine referred to in Davis's 
"Practical Microscopy," p. 415, and Carpenter's "The Micro- 
scope," pp. 441 and 442 (1891 edition) It is the natural balsam 
which flows from the trees that is referred to, and not the distilled 
extract sold as turpentine or oil of turpentine. 

The following definition is taken from Cooley's " Cyclopaedia 
of Practical Receipts" (1892 edition), p. 1720 :—" Turpentine, 
Turpentin, Terebinthina — an oleo-resin flowing from the trunk 
(the bark being removed) of Pinus palustris, P. tteda, P. 
sylvestris, and various species of Pinus and Abies. It is viscid, 
of the consistence of honey, and transparent. By distillation it is 
resolved into oil of turpentine, which passes over into the receiver, 
and into resin, which remains in the still. Bordeaux, or French, 
turpentine is from P. maritima. Chian turpentine is from P. 
terebintlms. It is pale, aromatic, fragrant, and has a warm taste 
devoid of bitterness. It is much adulterated, and a fictitious 
article is very generally sold for it. Venice turpentine is the 
liquid resinous exudation from the Abies larix. It is sweeter 
and less resinous tasted than common turpentine, but is now 
scarcely ever met with in trade. That of the shops is wholly a 
fictitious article." 

In Carpenter, p. 442 (1891 edition), it is stated that the natural 
balsam has a peculiar power of rendering the chitinous textures 
of insects transparent. — H. Bullen. 10th February, 1896. 



THE 



Victorian ^Latxxvali&t. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 2. MAY, 1896. No. 150. 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, nth May, 1896. The 
president, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A., occupied the 
chair, and some 70 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the excursion to Black Rock was read by Mr. J. 
Shephard, and of the visit to the Biological School by the 
chairman. 

ELECTION OF MEMBER. 

On a ballot being taken, Mr. J. Brunning was duly elected a 
member of the Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

After the nominations of office-bearers for the ensuing year had 
been made, Messrs. R. Hall and H. Cummins were elected to 
audit the accounts of the past year. 

PAPERS. 

1. By Rev. W. Fielder, entitled "The Intermediate Hosts of 
Fluke " (third note). 

The paper gave a record of the results so far attained in follow- 
ing up the life-history of the various forms of fluke found in the 
shells forwarded from different parts of the colony. It is hoped 
by isolating the different forms to get a definite clue to the exact 
larval form of the liver fluke of sheep. It appears to be proved, 
however, that although the adult form is precisely like the text- 
book form, the life -history is different. Encystation takes place 
in the larval host, which is so small that it may be taken in by 
the sheep when drinking. 

Some discussion ensued, in which Professor Spencer and 
Messrs. Keartland and T. S. Hall, M.A., took part. 

2. By Mr. G. A. Keartland, entitled "Ornithological Notes 
from Central Australia, part i. — Raptores." 

Many interesting field observations — jotted down during the 
journey of the expedition despatched to Central Australia, in 
1894, by Mr. VV. A. Horn — were given relating to the eagles, 
hawks, and owls, which are the characteristic forms of that dry 
region. 



x^ 



18 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

«e 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Mr. G. Lyell, jun., of Gisborne, read a note on the specific 
distinctions between the various butterflies commonly known as 
" blues ; " and Mr. H. Bullen contributed a cutting from the 
Therapist on the advantages of formalin as a preservative. 

EXHIBITION OF SPECIMENS. 

The following were the principal exhibits of the evening : — By 
Mr. C. French, F.L.S. — Group of exotic Buprestida;, including 
new species from the Congo. By Mr. C. French, jun. — Eggs of 
the following rare Australian birds, viz.: — Western Black Cockatoo 
and Striated Wren, from Central Australia ; Red-backed Superb 
Warbler and Long-billed Shore Plover, from Northern Queensland; 
also skin of Tiger Snake, four feet long, and Black Snake, six feet 
long, from Paynesville, Gippsland, lent by Mr. Maynard for 
exhibition; and plants in flower: Epacris microphylla and 
several varieties of Epacris impressa ; and variegated leaves of 
Eucalyptus Gunni, from Dandenong Ranges. By Mr. J. A. 
Kershaw. — Nest of Water Spider, from Queensland. By Baron 
von Mueller. — Polygonum orientate, from Lake Cowal, near 
Lachlan River, N.S.W., in order to draw attention to this so far 
southern locality for this plant, as it would be desirable to search 
for this species on the Murray River, and if shown to exist there 
would be new for Victoria. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



A TRIP TO MALLACOOTA. 
By D. Le Souef. 
(Read before. Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 13£A January, 1896.,) 
I left Melbourne on 2nd November for Lakes' Entrance, and then 
went on overland on my bicycle, and propose now to mention a 
few natural history notes I observed on my way, as a redescription 
of the country is unnecessary. When near Traralgon a Laughing 
Jackass (Daclo gigas) was noticed sitting on the telegraph wires 
as the train passed by, showing it had grown accustomed to them, 
but in any case a telegraph wire must have been a difficult resting- 
place for a bird of that size. I broke my journey for a short time 
at Rosedale, and while there found nests and eggs of the Yellow- 
breasted Robin, White-throated Thickhead, Black-throated Grebe, 
Garrulous Honey-eater, and Pallid Cuckoo. One Copper-head 
Snake was passed by, but as it remained perfectly still, although 
close to us, was taken for dead, but when disturbed soon 
made for a patch of scrub, which, however, it never reached. 
A flock of about seventy Sulphur-crested Cockatoos were seen feed- 
ing on the ground. White and the Roseate Cockatoos seem to 
feed far more on the ground than anywhere else. When passing 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 19 

through the Gippsland Lakes a pair of Black Swans were noticed 
with their five little ones — a full clutch. Some of the adult birds 
were moulting, and were unable to fly. At Cunninghame I 
noticed a gull feeding on the shore, hopping along on one leg, 
whether the other was lost or tucked up I cannot say, probably the 
latter. The Silver Gulls, when hovering close over the water, bend 
down their outspread tails and also their heads, giving then a curved 
appearance. On the banks of the Snowy River a flock of sixty 
Spurwing Plovers were seen feeding together on some cultivated 
ground. A domestic cat was also disturbed capturing a Landrail 
(B. phillipensis). The bird was on its back, kicking and pecking 
vigorously and crying out loudly at its enemy, which seemed 
to be trying to get hold of it. On the cat leaving it at my 
approach the bird still remained on its back until it noticed me 
alongside, when it jumped up and ran off. An Australian 
Cormorant was seen resting on the middle of the road, a long 
way from water ; I rode at it with the expectation of its flying 
away, but it didn't, consequently I rode over it, and then coming 
back killed it, and found it a very old and exceedingly thin speci- 
men. 

Near the Little River a beautiful White Hawk flew past. New 
Holland Honey-eaters were numerous in the various belts of 
scrub passed through, and several of their young seen, and also 
two clutches of black downy little Coachwhip Birds, hopping 
about in the thick scrub, attended by their anxious parents. Some 
young birds seem to leave the nest much sooner than others, as 
neither clutches of the young Coachwhip Birds could fly, and one 
pair of young New Holland Honey-eaters could only just manage 
it. Near the Bemm River a Flame-breasted Robin was busy 
building its nest on the top of a high stump, and another nest 
was found with young in. White-eyebrowed Wood Swallows 
were plentiful, but only one nest with young found. Bell Birds 
were numerous in places, and one nest found ready for eggs high up 
in a gum sapling. Black Duck and Wood Duck (Maned Geese) 
were noticed in some waterholes near the Cann River ; the latter 
bird is seldom seen in this part of Gippsland. In the scrub on 
the banks of the Tonghi River the nest of the Little Brown 
Sericornis was found, with one fresh Sericornis egg in and one 
Fantail Cuckoo's. These Cuckoos seemed to be numerous, and 
their call often heard. The shrill noise made by the cicadse was 
almost deafening. I noticed four kinds — two of the large 
greenish variety, a smaller brown one, and one small black one. 
Then, again, in some of the swampy ground passed by numerous 
frogs added their quota to the din : when one frog starts all the 
others seem to join in. 

When walking up a steep hill near Cockatoo Creek I was 
startled by seeing a Brown Snake coming rapidly down the hill; it 



20 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

caught sight of me when too late to stop its career, and passed 
under my bicycle and between my feet, and quickly disappeared 
in the scrub : something had evidently disturbed it. As the 
clearer country was reached near the Genoa River, two Grey 
Kangaroos were passed close to the road. Although so early in 
the season, a great deal of the country had been burnt by the 
bush fires, and the blackened tree trunks gave the country a very 
dismal appearance. In the country round about Mallacoota 
nests and eggs were found of the following birds : — The Bronze- 
wing Pigeon, Coachwhip Bird, Brush Wattle Bird, Superb Warbler, 
Grey-backed Zosterops, New Holland Honey-eater, White- 
throated Thickhead, Sordid Wood Swallow, Welcome Swallow, 
White-shafted Fantail, Laughing Jackass, Brown Tree-creeper, 
Blue Mountain Parrots, Spurwing Plover, Fire-tailed Finch, 
Flame-breasted Robin, Emu Wren, and Spotted Ground Thrush. 
Among other birds noted were the Funereal Cockatoo, Leach's 
Cockatoo, Wonga Wonga Pigeon, King and Pennant's Parrots, 
Satin Bower Birds ; and Chestnut-breasted Teal were very 
numerous, and nesting. I saw none of the Slender or Grey Teal. 
Musk Ducks were very plentiful in certain portions of the inlet, 
and they were very local, probably because their food, which 
was obtained by diving, was more plentiful there. A fisherman 
once caught over one hundred of these birds here in one haul of 
his net. There were a few Black-throated Grebes diving for their 
food like the Musk Ducks. Lyre-birds were numerous in the 
gullies, and their clear note often heard; and I heard one mocking 
the whining of a puppy to perfection — it was by a deserted 
miners' camp, and they used to leave the puppy fastened up 
while they were away. The surveyors complain that these birds 
fill up their trenches by scratchings, and pull off the pieces of paper 
they place on their pegs when running a surveyor's line. I saw 
a Harmonious Shrike Thrush catch a large grasshopper, and 
flying up to a tree, impale the unfortunate insect on to a splinter 
of wood, and then the bird began to devour it piecemeal, as it 
was too large for one mouthful. The Black Snake is common 
here in suitable localities, and on one occasion I unknowingly 
walked between two of them, each about four feet six inches 
long — they were about three feet away from me in the open, but 
as I was looking up into a tree, had not noticed them ; after 
watching them for a short time, the larger went down a neigh- 
bouring rat-hole, and then the other disappeared under a heap of 
dead scrub. They grow as long as six feet, and when that 
size are formidable-looking customers to come across. Brown 
Snakes are occasionally seen, and also Carpet and Diamond 
Snakes — the latter is looked upon as a strictly New South Wales 
snake, but it is found in Croajingolong, as far down the coast as 
the Bemm River, sixty miles from Mallacoota, and perhaps 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 21 

exists further this way still. I saw a specimen which had 
recently been killed. A resident at Mallacoota put a log on his 
fire, and after a few minutes was startled to see seven small 
snakes quickly wriggle out on to the floor. Insects were scarce, 
even to mosquitos, except in the gullies. Ticks occasionally 
made their presence felt, and are very difficult to remove when 
once they have taken a hold ; occasionally dogs die from them if 
the insects are not taken off in time. Fish are very plentiful, 
and in the evening, when the water is calm, the inlet seems alive 
with them, and a continuous noise going on, difficult to describe, 
caused by the fish rising to the surface. I saw a Flathead 
caught which weighed 14 lbs. and measured three feet long. 
Stingarees (Ray) are very plentiful, and on one occasion eighty-six 
were caught by a fisherman in his net at one haul. The various 
kinds of fish found in the inlet are as follows :— Schnapper, 
Kingfish, Ludrick, Flathead, Bream, Perch, Soles, Flounders, 
Whiting, Mullet, Sand Mullet, Skipjack, Salmon, Silverfish, 
Trevalla, and Sharks of course, although they do not appear to 
be very numerous. Octopus are also seen of a good size. The 
varieties of shells were not numerous. 

After staying for a fortnight in this delightful place, I started 
on my return vid Genoa. On going up the river a pair of 
Whistling Eagles were noticed performing a series of evolutions 
high up in the air, and occasionally uttering their curious cry. 
Skipjack were to be seen jumping clear out of the water, their 
silvery sides gleaming in the sun, and in the small swamps behind 
the ti-tree near the water's edge numbers of ducks were found 
feeding. At a settler's place were noticed the skins of a Delicate 
Owl and Tawny-shouldered Podargus. Native Bears were plentiful, 
and two were noticed on a very thin bough overhanging the 
water ; it seemed wonderful how they could keep their balance. 
They seem to have a preference for the White Eucalyptus trees, 
and are seldom found on the Stringybark or Messmate trees. 
Water Lizards from six to twelve inches long were occasionally 
seen basking in the sun on the logs or rocks by the river bank, 
but they at once dived into the water when approached. Towards 
evening the Boobook Owl was heard. 

On arriving at the Bemm River I took the opportunity of 
visiting Sydenham Inlet, and we rowed five miles down the 
river to it. I noticed that the Welcome Swallows built their 
mud nests on the top of and inside the hollows of snags and 
logs in the river, and not far from the level of the water, 
so that if a flood occurs during the nesting season all the 
nests and their contents get destroyed. I suppose that ex- 
perience has taught the swallows that they have fewer enemies 
to contend with over the water than anywhere else, as well as 
being near their winged insect prey ; they often seem to start 



22 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

building in holes that are too small to allow them to finish, and 
then they have to leave them for more roomy quarters. A Platypus 
dived near the bank as the boat approached. Cormorants were 
exceedingly numerous, evidently showing that food was abundant. 
We passed a towering White Gum tree, and saw two hawks' nests 
on it, one belonging to a White Goshawk and the other to a 
Collared Sparrowhawk, but they were well out of reach. A pair 
of Plotus Birds were passed ; when these birds dive they do not 
do as most other birds, head down and tail up, but they seem to 
sink and draw their long neck under the water and so disappear. 
Towards evening several shoals of Mullet passed up the river to 
the falls ; they made a considerable noise as they went along, 
swimming near the surface. Sydenham Inlet is a fine sheet of 
water, with a picturesque bar. There were hundreds of Black 
Duck, Chestnut-breasted Teal, and Swans on its surface, and a 
few Pelicans, and any quantity of fish. It must be a delightful 
place to camp for a holiday. A large nest of the White-bellied 
Sea Eagle was seen about fifty feet up an old gum tree, and it 
contained about a cartload of material. The Black Wattle trees 
lining the bank were all in bloom, and looked very beautiful, and 
the water was in many places covered with their fallen flowers, 
but the bark strippers were busy at work taking the bark off. 
When passing through the Gippsland Lakes again, ducks, swans, 
and the Sombre Gallinule were seen in many thousands, and they 
could only be described by acres of them. They kept in the 
shallow water, and were probably here in such numbers on account 
of the extreme dryness of the season. The flight of the Gallinule 
is very weak. When passing up the Thompson River numbers 
of young ducks were seen close under the river bank and among 
the reeds, and two Copper-head and one Tiger Snake were seen 
swimming across the river. A good many dead eels were 
floating about on the surface of the water, and we presume that 
they were killed by the dredge that was at work in the channel. 



A NEW ROTIFER— LACINULARIA E LONG AT A. 
By J. Shephard. 
(Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 13th April, 1896.^ 
On nth January, on the occasion of a Club excursion to Heidel- 
berg, was found a considerable number of colonies of this rotifer, 
which I take to be new, and have ventured to name Lacinularia 
elongata. 

Before describing it I would mention that when Hudson and 
Gosse's " Rotifera " was published, in 1889, only two species of the 
genus Lacinularia were mentioned — L. socialis, a widely distributed 
form, and L. pedunculata, peculiar to Australia. Up to June, 
1893, when Mr. Rousselet published a list of new species de- 





Fig. 2 




Fig, 3 



Fie. I 




Fig. 5 



J.Shephard del. 



Fig. i. — Dorsal view. 

Fig. 2. — Ventral view of anterior part of animal. 

Fig. 3. — Lateral view of anterior part of animal. 

Fig. 4. — Trophi. 

Fig. 5. — Outline of corona (seen from above). 



LACINULARIA ELONGATA 

(NEW ROTIFER). 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 23 

scribed since 1889, four more had been added — two from China, 
one from Victoria, and one in England, the latter being L. natans, 
now often met with in the lagoons along the valley of the Yarra, 
though it has not been reported from any place other than Littleton, 
near London, and the abovementioned locality, so far as I know. 
It would therefore appear that Australia is rich in forms of this 
genus, as three out of seven known forms are not reported from 
elsewhere, and of the remaining four two are common, leaving 
but two, the Chinese forms, as unrecorded here. The literature 
I have access to does not contain any newly described species of 
Lacinularia since 1893. In addition, I would say that Prof. 
Baldwin Spencer obtained a form from Central Australia, which, 
owing to its being preserved in spirit, I was unable to definitely 
identify. Such points of the anatomy as could be discerned 
differed very little from L. socialis. In the formation of the 
colony there was, however, a most emphatic departure from the 
ordinary type. Instead of a spherical colony of about ^ in. in 
diameter, the individuals were spread over a twig of about y& in. 
diameter, completely surrounding it for 2 in. of its length, forming a 
thick felt, closely resembling to the naked eye a freshwater sponge, 
which are found in Australia, despite recent statements in widely 
read journals to the contrary. Whether this abnormal luxuriance 
indicates a new species must be left for decision until the living 
form or suitably preserved specimens are obtained. 

The form which is the subject of this paper was found adhering 
to the stems of water plants in spherical clusters of a dirty brown 
colour. This brown colour appears characteristic of the species, 
as colonies of L. socialis found on the same stem retained their 
usual whitish appearance, and therefore the difference must be 
attributable to some habit or property of secretion peculiar to the 
species. The clusters are about 2.5 mm. in diameter. The 
individuals are more sparsely spread over the surface of this 
sphere than in other species of the genus, and are at once dis- 
tinguishable by their narrower body and corona. The corona is 
slightly oval, the shorter axis being placed dorso-ventrally. There 
is a very distinct dorsal gap. The groove between the principal 
and secondary ciliary wreaths is covered with shorter cilia. Two 
antennae are placed towards the dorsal surface, low down on the 
neck. These antennae are very small, and can only be seen when 
the animal is suitably placed and the illumination effected in a 
proper manner. Taking the general outline, the corona is rather 
wider than the body, and in living specimens the neck is con- 
stricted and there are two transverse furrows on a level with the 
mastax. From the neck the outline broadens until the widest part 
is reached, a little below the neck, from whence it tapers off some- 
what quickly to a long peduncle of about two-thirds the entire 
length of the animal. The peduncle is highly contractile. The 



24 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



trophi have the form characteristic of the family, but are much 
smaller, being -023 mm. across, as against 072 mm. for some of 
L. socialis measured for comparison. The fulcrum is pointed at 
its termination, and not swollen as in L. socialis. The arrangement 
of the internal organs does not vary from the usual type, except 
that the alimentary tract is not so sharply divided into intestine 
and stomach as in other species of the genus. A mounted speci- 
men showed the anus to be ciliated. Three round nucleated 
bodies were noticed towards the dorsal surface, just below the 
dorsal gap, which are shown in fig. 1, the two anterior ones being 
smaller proportionately to the third than figured. Fig. 1 was 
drawn from a preserved specimen, figs. 2 and 3 from life. I am 
indebted to Mr. W. Stickland for the careful manner in which he 
has engraved the figures. 

I sum up the specific characters as follows : — Clusters fixed, 
with a dense matrix of adherent tubes of a dirty brown colour. 
Body of individual narrow and much elongated, terminating in 
slender peduncles two-thirds of whole length. Corona rather 
wider than body, slightly oval, with short axis, dorso-ventral, at 
right angles to trunk, ciliate between wreaths. Dorsal gap 
distinct. Antennas two, dorsal, minute. Dimensions. — Clusters, 
up to 2.5 mm. diameter; individuals, .8 mm. to 1 mm. long; 
corona, .08 mm. wide; body, .06 mm. ; trophi, .023 mm. across ; 
ova, .07 by .048. 

Habitat — Heidelberg, Victoria. 



INTERMEDIATE HOSTS OF FLUKE.— Third Note. 

By Rev. W. Fielder. 

{Read he/ore the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 10th Hay, 1896.) 

Some twelve snails have already been recorded for Victoria as 
harbouring fluke embryos. One or two others from New South 
Wales have since given examples, notably Isidora (Bulinus) 
newcombi, together with varieties of Limnea brazieri, embryos 
from these forms being more common now than earlier in the year. 
Perhaps the most interesting find of the month, however, is that 
of the occurrence of curiously modified fluke embryos in the Fresh- 
water Mussel (Unio Australis). The cercaria embryos are some- 
what oval in shape, the head region being narrower than the tail 
region. Towards the posterior border a pinching-in takes place, 
a segment, so to speak, being almost separated from the body 
proper. From the groove thus formed springs a whip-like 
structure on either side, each process when in a contracted condi- 
tion being about the length of the body. The method of extend- 
ing these processes is extremely interesting. The substance 
appears to run out from the base like the tape from a winding 
measure till it reaches a length five or six times that of the body. 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



•25 



A slight jerk, and the extended filament is rapidly contracted till 
it assumes a state of rest. Although of such length, it does not 
take up much space, since it arranges itself in coils which overlap 
each other. A gas-globule is usually present at the extreme tip. 
The nurse-sacs of this form are very long compared with typical 
ones, being crowded with cercarige, and are present in great 
numbers in the " liver " of the host. 

In the last note reference was made to the occurrence of cysts 
within the snails and the comparative absence of encystation 
outside the snail was commented upon. The appearance and 
structure of these cysts will be described in the present note. 
Seven varieties have been observed, and there is every 
reason to believe that they are the temporary home of distinct 
forms of fluke embryos. Rabbits and ducks have been fed upon 
some of them, but up to the present no satisfactory results have 
been obtained. However, the experiments cannot be regarded 
as conclusive, since the material operated upon has been of too 
limited a character to found upon it any definite conclusions. 

The first cyst to be de- 
scribed is that occurring 
in very large numbers in 
Isidora texturata, Isidora 
alicice, and Limnea lessoni. 
It reaches a size of T ^ of 
an inch, and is easily known 
by the curious appearance 
of some glassy-lookingcells, 
which are always arranged 
in a very definite manner. 
In the cercaria these cells 
stand out quite distinct 
from the rest, and are seen 
as a band extending down 
each side of the body. 
When the animal is about 
to encyst it doubles the 
anterior of its body over 
the posterior portion, and 
throws off the tail. This 
doubling is not quite equal, 
so that darkish cells in the 
upper fold do not lie quite 
above those in the lower, 
but rather a little to one 
side. Two loops, therefore, 
of these specially modified 



FIG. I 




Wn IN. 



FIG, 3 




FIG. 6 




Cysts of Fluke Embryos. 



cells are seen (fig r). It was not till actual encystation had 



26 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

been witnessed that the full explanation of the arrangement 
was definitely understood. In the living cercaria the cells are 
confined to two ducts, which end blindly behind but open in 
front just behind the anterior sucker. The cells are probably 
cystogenous in function, yet only a few seem to be used up in the 
actual process of making the cyst. Shining through the cyst a 
circlet of spines is clearly visible, encircling the anterior sucker, 
and if the cyst is ruptured this circlet is seen to be made up of 
a double row of small spines. The ring is broken by the 
anterior sucker, and at the points lying near its posterior border 
are two patches, each bearing four large pointed spines. Exceed- 
ingly minute spines cover the anterior end of the embryo, and 
extend down the body to the level of the posterior border of the 
ventral sucker. Rudimentary spines can be made out on some 
of the active cercarine, but growth of the spines seems to proceed 
most rapidly in the period immediately following encystation. 
This example affords evidence of what is known as an " armed " 
variety of embryo fluke — the armour referring to the presence of 
specially modified spines or stylets, which are, doubtless, of use 
to the embryo for attachment purposes in a final host. The 
cysts themselves occur not only in the liver, but also in the 
albumen gland and near to the pericardium, and in one instance 
a redia also contained cysts. 

Another interesting cyst occurs in the snails Isidora lexturata 
and Limnea le.ssoni. It is just twice as large as most of the 
others, being about J 3 in. in size ; so large, in fact, that no active 
cercaria has been seen which can be exactly fitted to it, and it is 
probable that the earlier stages have yet to be observed. The 
semi-transparent cells which have already been described in 
connection with the other cyst here take the form of a crescent, 
the edges of which give off branching processes. In the space 
between the limbs of the crescent structures like the teeth of a 
comb can be seen (fig. 2). If now the cyst be ruptured carefully, 
this comb-like structure assumes the shape of a nearly complete 
ring in the region of the anterior sucker — the ring being made 
up of about thirty-seven large spines. On either side of the 
pharynx is a tuft of four spines, then the others follow in a single 
row till they meet in the mid-dorsal line. Covering the whole of 
the anterior portion are small spines which extend, as in the case 
of the fluke before described, as far as the ventral sucker. At 
this stage the embryo has practically all the rudimentary struc- 
tures of an adult fluke. 

Occurring side by side with the cysts already described, a 
great number of somewhat smaller cysts, about ^bo in - m 
diameter, were occasionally met with. No opaque cells were 
present, but the included protoplasm presented a uniform 
granulated appearance. In most cases the cysts occurred in 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 27 



groups of two to twelve, surrounded by a very thin transparent 
gelatinous substance, enclosed in a definite cell wall (fig. 3). 
When the cysts were ruptured, both anterior and posterior 
suckers were clearly defined in the embryo, as well as a circlet of 
small spines near the anterior sucker. 

Another curiously modified cyst also occurs in immense 
numbers in Isidora texturata, and occasionally in Isidora tenui- 
striatus. This cyst is about ^ s in. in length, being somewhat 
oval in shape, with the anterior end just a little wider than the 
posterior one. The whole of the posterior region is obscured by 
a large number of dark pigmented cells, with the exception of a 
small circular patch which occurs near the posterior border, in 
the region probably of the excretory pore (fig. 4). If these cysts 
are kept for any length of time within the snail, the pigmented 
portion becomes less in size and lighter in colour, and it is quite 
probable that the pigmented cells are food yolk cells, upon which 
the young embryo is supported during its temporary imprisonment. 
During the last three months these cysts have been frequently 
met with in the same gathering of snails, and it is probable that 
they will exist in a living condition for some considerable time 
when protected by the tissues of the snail. The embryo which 
issues from this cyst does not appear to be an *' armed " variety, 
no large spines being visible. The anterior portion, however, is, 
as in the other cases, covered with very minute spines. 

Another pigmented variety of cyst, t }q in. in size, occurs in 
Limnea brazieri. In the case of this form encystation was seen 
to take place directly it was taken from the snail. A granulated 
material was passed over the cercaria and the tail eventually 
cast off. A very large amount of pigment was present in the 
cercaria, and when the cyst was complete the centre of it was so 
dark as to be quite opaque to transmitted light. The outer 
border of the cyst presented a serrated appearance in all the 
examples observed on this occasion (fig. 5). No spines were 
noticed on any of the embryos. 

The embryo fluke (cercaria stage) with one spine springing 
from the anterior sucker has already been described as occurring 
in Isidora texturata, I. gibbosa, Limnea lessoni, and L. brazieri. 
Encystation has been observed in one or two instances, the 
resulting cyst being about r \^ in. in diameter. The central proto- 
plasm is very granular, but a single stylet is clearly seen shining 
through (fig. 6). If the embryo is released, both anterior and 
posterior suckers come into view, as well as the typical arrange- 
ment of the alimentary track. A depression with an opening 
on either side of the anterior sucker is visible at a slightly higher 
level than the openings referred to in the first embryo described. 

The last cyst to be described is one found in company with 
Segment ina victories — a few only of the cysts being noted, and 



28 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

the embryos in Isidora tenuistriatus and Ancylus tasmanicus and 
those during the month of January. These cysts were of average 
size, being about j^q in. in diameter, and the anterior and 
posterior suckers could be distinguished through the deeply 
pigmented mass of the central protoplasm (fig. 7). 

In dealing with these cysts the question naturally arises, 
" Where do they find their future home — is it in bird, fish, 
sheep, or man ? " The answer to this, as far as Australia is con- 
cerned, has yet to be found, and bearing, as it does, upon the 
everyday life of the people of infected districts, its economic 
value is of the very greatest importance. 



MICROSCOPIC WORK. 



The note by Mr. Bullen in the last Naturalist on the use of 
turpentine in mounting recalls to my mind a somewhat similar 
experience which I have had. Some years ago I put up a 
number of slides of calcareous sponge spicules, using oil of cloves 
to displace the air from the spicules, and in turn replacing the oil 
of cloves by running in balsam in benzine. From these slides 
the spicules have completely disappeared, having evidently 
dissolved in the balsam, which would, perhaps, retain a trace 
of the oil of cloves. — Thos. Steel. Sydney, nth May, 1896. 



The Calvert Exploring Expedition. — This expedition, which 
has been fitted out by Mr. Calvert for the purpose of completing 
the work of the Elder expedition of 1891, will start from Derby, 
on the north-west coast, and work in an easterly direction towards 
the overland telegraph line, somewhere about Powell's Creek. 
Members of the Field Naturalists' Club will doubtless be pleased 
to learn that a fellow member, Mr. G. A. Keartland, has been 
selected to fill the position of zoological collector, for which duty 
the experience gained on the Horn expedition will prove of great 
service. The party has already left Adelaide en route to Western 
Australia, and will probably be away about twelve months. 

Geological — a Correction. — We notice that several of our 
geological friends are accustomed to style Dr. Selwyn " Sir A. R. 
C. Selwyn," and we even note it in the index of one of our English 
contemporaries. This is an error. Dr. Selwyn has received the 
title of C.M.G. at the hands of Her Majesty, but has not been 
knighted. Attention has previously been called to a similar mis- 
take with reference to Richard Daintree, but error dies hard. 



THE 



Victorian tyat\xvali$t. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 3. JUNE, 1896. No. 151. 

(PUBLISHED JULY U, 1896.) 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The sixteenth annual meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, 8th June, 1896. The 
president, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A., occupied the 
chair, and some 60 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the dredging excursion in Port Philip Bay, on 
Queen's Birthday, was received from Mr. J. Shephard. The 
party was successful in locating a splendid dredging ground, and 
this has been marked for future operations. It was decided that 
Messrs. Cooke and Cottell be again thanked for the use of their 
boats. 

Mr. F. G. A. Barnard submitted a report of the excursion to 
Olinda Creek, Lilydale, on the same day, which was enjoyed by 
those present in spite of the wet weather. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Miss Brent and Messrs. L. Arendts, 
F. Buckie, and Rev. J. S. Hart were duly elected members of the 
Club. 

ANNUAL REPORT. 

The hon. secretary (Mr. H. P. C. Ashworth) read the sixteenth 
annual report, 1895-96, which was as follows : — 

" To the Members of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 
Ladies and Gentlemen, — Your Committee has much pleasure in 
presenting to you the sixteenth annual report of the Club's work, 
being for the year ending on 31st May, 1896. 

" The past few years have, of necessity, seen a slight diminution 
in the membership of the Club, in common with that of other 
societies in the colony, but though this has been the case it is 
satisfactory to note that the interest in the monthly meetings has 
been fully maintained, the average attendance at which has been 
about 60. 

" During the past year 1 1 new members have been elected, 
and the total membership is now 157, including life and honorary 
members, the latter numbering 11. 



<W^ * 



30 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

" The Club has to regret the loss, by death, during th. past 
year of one honorary member, Dr. J. E. Taylor, and of i 
ordinary members, who have been for many years associated v\ 
the Club — Mr. J. Bracebridge Wilson, Dr. P. MacGillivray, ai. 
J. L. Bowen. 

" Twenty-three papers have been read at the meetings, and in 
addition n others written by members of the Club have appeared 
in the Naturalist, of which 8 were botanical, 16 zoological, 2 
geological, 3 dealt with excursions, and 5 with general subjects. 

" The names of those who have contributed papers to the 
meetings and to the Naturalist are Baron von Mueller, H. P. C. 
Ashworth, F. L. Billinghurst, H. Bullen, Rev. W. Fielder, R. J. 
Fletcher, C. French, C. French jun., J. Gabriel, R. Hall, T. S. 
Hall, T. S. Hart, W. H. F. Hill, Oswald B. Lower, G. Lyell, D. 
M'Alpine, Mrs. Martin, A. J. North, C. M. Maplestone, O. A. 
Sayce, D. Le Souef, Professor Spencer, and H. T. Tisdall. 

" The number of papers is considerably larger than that of last 
year, but your Committee trusts that the coming year will see 
still further activity in this direction. In particular it would point 
out to country members and to those who have the opportunity 
of investigating the fauna and flora of special districts the im- 
portance of drawing up local lists dealing with the fauna and 
flora of special parts of the colony. This work can advantageously 
be carried on side by side with an investigation into the habits 
and life-histories of the animals recorded, and such carefully 
drawn up faunal lists are of considerable importance in dealing 
with general questions concerned with the distribution of animals 
and plants. In this respect it is to be hoped that the Club will 
be able to publish series of papers from various members, such as 
those now being written by Mr. Billinghurst on the fauna of the 
Castlemaine district. 

" The excursions have been fairly well attended, but there is 
room for considerable improvement in this respect, and the atten- 
tion of members is once more drawn to the advantages to be 
gained from taking part in field work in company with other 
members of the Club with whom they have interests in common. 
No extended excursion has been held during the year, but the 
Club has received accounts of excursions made to Albatross 
Island by Messrs. Gabriel and Ashworth, and to Mallacoota Inlet 
by Mr. D. Le Souef. 

" During the year seven meetings have been held for practical 
work, three of which were devoted to a course of demonstrations 
given by Mr. C. A. Topp on systematic botany ; two were pre- 
sided over by Mr. O. A. Sayce, who dealt practically with "Killing, 
Mixing, and Staining Reagents for Microscopic Work ; " one by 
Rev. W. Fielder, who dealt with the Tunicata ; and one by Mr. 
Shephard, on the measurement of microscopic objects. Reference 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 31 

may be made here to the interesting results obtained by Mr. 
Fielder in regard to the intermediate hosts of various species of 
flukes. It is to be hoped that further work will enable Mr. Fielder 
to arrive at definite conclusions with regard to the life-histories of 
the forms now being studied by him. 

" In the last report reference was made to the despatch of a 
scientific expedition to Central Australia by Mr. Horn. The 
zoological report, a copy of which Mr. Horn has presented to the 
Club, has now been issued, and the Club will notice with interest 
that out of the thirteen authors of the seventeen memoirs con- 
tained in the report nine are members of this Club. In this 
connection members will note with interest that Mr. G. A. 
Keartland, who accompanied the Horn Expedition, has recently 
been appointed zoological collector on the Calvert Expedition, 
so that in various ways members of the Club are engaged upon 
work which will serve to considerably extend our knowledge of 
the natural history of Australia. 

" The twelfth conversazione of the Club was held in the 
Athenaeum Hall on Thursday and Friday, 28th and 29th May, 
and was a decided success. As on the last occasion, it was held 
on the two evenings and the intervening afternoon. The 
attendance was such as to render it financially a success, whilst 
in drawing attention to the aims and work of the Club it cannot 
fail to be of future advantage. It was opened by our senior 
patron, the Baron von Mueller, who was supported by Sir 
Frederick M'Coy, and during its course lecturettes were delivered 
by Mr. C. Frost, Mr. T. S. Hall, and Professor Spencer. The 
display of natural history and other exhibits was a good one, but 
on a future occasion the committee hopes to see a larger number 
of members taking part as exhibitors. As usual, one of the most 
attractive features was the display made by the microscopical 
section. 

" The twelfth volume of the Club's journal has been completed, 
and the thanks of the Club are again due to Mr. F. G. A. 
Barnard for the work which he has so admirably performed as 
editor of the journal, the circulation of which is of the greatest 
advantage to the Club. 

" In regard to the finances of the Club, the treasurer reports 
that the receipts are ^129 8s. iod., the expenditure ^123 6s., 
leaving a balance of ^,6 2s. iod. The expenditure includes the 
sum of ^26 9s., which has been paid on account of 
liabilities previously incurred, so that from a financial point of 
view the Club may be regarded as having improved its 
position. 

" Your committee, in conclusion, would remind members that 
the usefulness of the Club can be extended not only by the 
attraction of new members, but by each individual member 



•°>2 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

taking as far as possible an active share in the work d 
Club. 

" Signed, on behalf of the committee, 

" W. Baldwin Spencer, Chairman. 
"8t/i June, 1896." " H. P. C. As h worth, Hon. Sec. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

The hon. treasurer, Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S., then read the financial 
statement for 1895-96, which was as follows : — 

Receipts. 

To Balance, 30th April, 1895 ... ... ... £\G 7 1 

,, Subscriptions ... ... £92 2 6 

,, Victorian Naturalist — 

Subscriptions ... £4 10 6 

Sales, &c. ... 789 

Advertisements ... 900 



20 19 3 



1 9 



.£129 8 10 



£86 10 

• H 13 
18 


6 

6 





• 4 19 
. 16 5 




£123 
6 


6 
2 10 




£129 


8 10 



Expenditure. 

By Victorian Naturalist — 

Printing, on account 1893-4 £26 9 o 

„ ' 1895-6 ... 58 6 6 

Reprints ... ... 1 15 o 

,, Rooms — Rent and Attendance... 

,, Library — Binding 

,, Printing and Stationery 

,, Postages and Advertising 

,, Balance 



C. FROST, Hon. Treasurer. 
1st June, 1896. 

Audited and found correct. 

H. CUMMINS,! . ... 
4th June, 1896. ROBT. \\NLU) AmMors - 

On the motion of Mr. H. T. Tisdall, F.L.S., seconded by Mr. 
C. French, F.L.S., the report and balance-sheet were received 
and adopted. 

OFFICE-BEARERS FOR 1 896-7. 

The following office-bearers for 1896-7 were declared duly 
elected, being the only nominations received : — President, Pro- 
fessor Baldwin Spencer, M.A. ; vice-presidents, Messrs. C. 
French, F.L.S., and J. Shephard ; hon. librarian, Mr. O. A. 
Sayce ; hon. treasurer, Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S. ; and hon. secretary, 
Mr. C. French, jun. 



THE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 33 

A ballot for five members of committee resulted in the election 
of Messrs. H. P. C. Ashworth, D. Best, J. Gabriel, F.L.S., T. S. 
Hall, M.A., and W. Stickland. 

On the motion of Mr. E. T. Carter, seconded by Mr. C. 
French, jun., a vote of thanks to the retiring hon. secretary was 
passed with acclamation. 

PAPER. 

By Mr. H. R. Hogg, M.A., entitled "The Flight of Sea Birds." 
The author showed how, in flying against the wind without 
Mapping their wings, the motive power is obtained chiefly by 
utilizing the momentum gained by force of gravity, and offered 
some remarks on the methods of regaining vertical distances lost 
in the process. 

In the discussion which followed Professor Spencer and Mr. 
H. P. C Ashworth took part, the latter holding that Mr. Hogg's 
explanation amounted to perpetual motion, since a bird on enter- 
ing the air formed part of it, and no movement of the whole of 
the air could therefore be of any advantage. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

A note was received from Miss Agnes F. Kenyon, recording 
the occurrence of Voluta Roadknighti, a shell hitherto supposed 
to be confined to Victorian waters, from the east coast of Tasmania. 

EXHIBITION OF SPECIMENS. 

The following were the principal exhibits of the evening : — By 
Mr. F.G. A. Barnard. — Queensland moths and flowers of Melaleuca 
squarrosa grown by exhibitor. By Mr. G. Coghill. — Young 
Copper-head Snake, alive. By Mr. C. French, F.L.S. — Rare 
Australian butterflies, Epinephile Joanna, E. Helena, Atella pro- 
pinqua, Libythea myrrh, Holoclula cyprotus, II. albosericea, 
Pseudodipsas Digglesi, P. Brisbanensis, Hypoclirysops Ollijfi, 
Lycama oranigra ; also insects from Duke of York Island, 
collected by Rev. E. Brown. By Mr. C French, jun. — Orchid 
in flower, Pterostylis vittata, collected at Sandringham, 6th June, 
1896. By Mr. R. Hall. — Bird, nest, and eggs of Little Chthon- 
icola. By Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G. — Struvea plumosa, 
found by Mr. O'Halloran at Spencer Gulf. This alga is new for 
South Australia, having previously been known from near the 
estuary of Swan River and from Champion Bay ; Claudia elegans, 
also from Spencer Gulf, and obtained by Mr. O'Halloran, the 
locality being the sixth from which this magnificent seaweed is 
known ; Alysicarfms vaginalis, sent by Mr. Joseph Harris, 
F.R.H.S., who obtained it from Fiji, where it has been intro- 
duced and is rapidly supplanting the original pasturage. It is 
remarkable that stock are passionately fond of it, and that neither 
this nor any other Alysicarpus has been previously recorded as a 
rural plant. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



34 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB CONVERSAZIONL 

The twelfth conversazione of the Field Naturalists' Club 
Victoria was held at the Athenaeum Hall, Collins-street, M< 
bourne, on Thursday and Friday, 28th and 29th May, 1896. 

The arrangements of the conversazione were practically the 
same as of that held in June, 1894. It was inaugurated on 
Thursday evening, in the presence of a large number of members 
and friends, with a brief address by Baron Sir F. von Mueller, 
K.C.M.G., M. and Ph. D., &c, one of the patrons of the Club, 
who called attention to the aims and objects of such organiza- 
tions, and the opportunities they afforded for working out the 
geographical distribution of both animal and vegetable life. He 
expressed his pleasure at seeing so many ladies interested in the 
subject, and hoped that some of them at least would become 
prominent workers in natural science. 

A vote of thanks to Baron von Mueller was proposed by 
Professor Sir Frederick M'Coy, K.C.M.G., D.Sc, who referred 
to the great help field observers could be to the scientific 
specialist, who was perhaps unable to devote sufficient time to 
working out the life-histories of such animals or plants as he 
might require to complete his investigations, and spoke with 
great appreciation of the prominent position held by Baron von 
Mueller in the scientific world, and especially in Victoria. The 
motion was briefly seconded by the president, Professor Baldwin 
Spencer, and carried by acclamation. 

A lecturette entitled "Some Notes about Spiders" was then 
delivered in the upper hall by Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S. In the 
course of his remarks, which were well illustrated by limelight 
views, he pointed out the principal groups into which spiders are 
divided, and gave many interesting particulars as to their habits, 
method of web-spinning, &c, many of the audience being sur- 
prised to learn that spiders should be regarded as friends rather 
than foes to mankind, owing to their usefulness in keeping insect 
life in check. 

On Friday afternoon Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., delivered a 
lecturette entitled " An Australian Ice Age." The lecturer 
briefly indicated some of the factors in the formation of glaciers, 
and described the effects of moving ice on a land surface. The 
glacial beds at Bacchus Marsh and Derrinal were then dealt 
with, and their characters were fully illustrated by lantern views. 
The discussion of the age of the beds, their geographical extent, 
and probable source, brought the proceedings to a close. 

In the evening Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A., gave an 
illustrated lecturette on " Life in a Central Australian Water- 
hole " to a numerous audience. He briefly described the 
characteristic physiographical features of that region, and the 
situation of the principal permanent and temporary waterholes, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 35 

and then gave a brief sketch of the life-histories and habits of 
their most noteworthy inhabitants. 

The lantern used to illustrate the lectures was kindly placed at 
the disposal of the Club and worked by Mr. J. Searle. 

The display of natural history specimens in the main hall was, 
of course, the principal feature of the conversazione, and was 
quite up to the standard of previous exhibitions of the Club. 
Besides the many fine exhibits by the individual members, splendid 
collections of specimens were on view from the Biological School, 
Melbourne University, and the Entomological Branch of the 
Department of Agriculture. Some twenty members exhibited 
microscopes with objects, which proved a great source of attrac- 
tion during the evenings. 

EXHIBITS. 

The following is a list of the contributors, with particulars of 
their exhibits : — 

Ashvvorth, H. P. C, Glenferrie — Mounted Birds and Birds' Skins. Photo- 
graphs from the Islands in Bass Strait. 

Baker, Frank L., Auburn — Photo-Micrographs. 

Barnard, F. G. A., Kew — Victorian and British Insects. Birds' Skins 
from Richmond River. Pair Flying Mice. Victorian Ferns in pots. 
Portraits of Sir Jos. Banks and Sir J as. E. Smith, with autograph de- 
scription of Datura arborea by latter, dated 1792. 

Best, D., Hawthorn — Case of Australian Wasps and Hornets. Case of Vic- 
torian Butterflies. Twelve cases of Australian Beetles. 

Biological Department, Melbourne University — Series of specimens 
illustrating the more important groups of the animal kingdom. 

Cochrane, Miss S. W. L., Auburn — Paintings of Victorian Orchids. 

Coles, A., Melbourne— Queensland Cassowary. Australian Kangaroo. 
Black Brush Wallaby. Red-necked Wallaby. Striped Rock Wallaby. 
Case of New Guinea Birds. Shade of Australian Quail. Arctic Fox. 
Litter of six young Foxes. Wedge-tailed Eagle. White-bellied Sea 
Eagle. Owls. Sitellas. Grauculus. Bittern. Silver Gulls and young. 
Collection of Australian Birds' Eggs. 

Entomological Branch, Agricultural Department — Charts of 
Insects destructive to vegetation. Cases of Silk-producing Moths, with- 
Life- Histories and Insect Dissections. Plates for Handbook of De- 
structive Insects. Group of Insectivorous Birds of Victoria. 

Fielder, Rev. W., St. Kilda — Shells of Snails which form the Intermediate 
Hosts of Fluke Embroyos. 

French, C, F.L. S., Malvern — Two drawers of Foreign Beetles. Five 
drawers of Australian Butterflies. Five drawers of Australian Moths. 
Six drawers of Foreign Butterflies and Moths. Four frames of Illus- 
trations of Australian Insects. 

Ferguson, W. H., Albert Park— Aboriginal Stone Implements. 

French, C., jun., South Yarra — Princess of Wales Parrakeet (alive). Blood- 
stained Cockatoo (alive). Pennant's Parrakeet (alive). Podargus (alive). 
Also case of Nests and Eggs of Insectivorous Birds of Victoria. 

Gatliff, J. H., Carlton— Cases of Victorian Shells. 

Grayson, H., St. Kilda — Diffraction Gratings for Spectroscopic Work. 
Gratings for Monochromatic Illumination with the Microscope. Micro- 
metric and Test Rulings ranging from 5,000 to 120,000 lines per 
inch. 

Hall, R., Box Hill — Plumed Egret, mounted. 



36 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Hall, T. S., M.A. — Geological and PaUrontological Collection. Graj 
&c. 

Hill, VV. H. F. , Windsor — Two cases of Victorian Lepidoptera. 

Hill, Gerald F., Windsor — Two cases of Victorian Hymenoptera (Wa 

Hill, Bernard F., Windsor — Two cases of Victorian Hymenoptera. 

Hill, Wilfred F. — Case of colony of Beehive Moths. 

Kershaw, W., Windsor — Three drawers of Foreign Lepidoptera. Th 
drawers of Australian Lepidoptera. Case of Australian and N I 
Guinea Birds. 

Kershaw, Jas. A. — Two drawers of Australian Lepidoptera. Case 
Foreign Lepidoptera. 

Kitson, A. E., East Melbourne— Ores of Silver, Lead, Copper, Iron, Tin 
Zinc, Antimony, Nickel, Manganese, Mercury, Molybdenum, and 
Tungsten. 

Le Souef, D., Parkville — Case of Australian Birds' Eggs. Case of 
Queensland Curios. Live Snakes. 

Lyell, G., jun., Gisborne— Four cases of Australian Butterflies and Moths. 

Maplestone, C. M., Heidelberg — Drawings of Orchids. 

Shepherd, G. E., Somerville — Yellow-legged Spoonbill. Blue Reef 
Heron. Mountain Teal. Sooty Oyster-Catcher. White-breasted 
Oyster-Catcher. Barred-Rumped Godwit. Hooded Dotterel. Turn- 
stone. Black-chested Pewit. Lewin's Rail. Little Water Crake. 

Stickland, W., Hawthorn — Drawings of Rotifiers. 

Stickland, J., Hawthorn — Mounted Seaweeds. 

Sweet, G., Brunswick — Geological and Palreontological Collection. 

Tisdall, H. T., F.L.S., Toorak — Coloured Drawings of Victorian Fungi. 

Wisewould, F., Melbourne— Case of Shells. 

Watson, W., & Sons, 78 Swanston Street — Microscopes, and Display of 
Micro. Specimens. Novelties in Optical Instruments, &c. 
Microscopical exhibits were shown by the following : — Mr. H. Bullen, 

metallic ores and micro-fungi ; Mr. E. T. Carter, entomological mounts ; 

Mr. J. Gabriel, polyzoa ; Mr. R. Hall, pond life ; Mr. W. H. F. Hill, rock 

sections, with polarized light ; Mr. H. R. Hogg, pond life ; Mr. VV. J. 

M'Caw, specimens illustrating life-history of the Liver Fluke; Mr. H. O'Neill, 

biological preparations ; Mr. G. J. Page, Foraminifera and DiatomaceEe ; Mr. 

A. O. >>ayce, slides illustrating histology of the frog, also blood in circulation, 

and some living examples of its eggs under development ; Mr. J. Shephaid, 

preparations illustrating development of jelly-fish, anemone, and pond life ; 

Mr. W. Stickland, Rotifiers ; Mr. J. Stickland, pond life ; Mr. W. Stone, 

pond life ; Mr. J. Wilson, insect anatomy. 



NOTES ON THE HABITS OF WOOD SWALLOWS. 
By Robert Hall. 
( Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 10th February, 1896 J 
In the Box Hill district two species of the Artamidse — viz., 
Artamus super ciliosus, Gould, and A. personatus, Gould — are well 
represented at the present time (January, 1896). Last season 
their arrival was noted on 12th December, but this season they 
appeared much earlier, viz., 25th October, when the grasshoppers 
were in their babyhood. The insectivorous habits of these birds, 
besides being worthy of record, have afforded me the opportunity 
of putting together a few notes as to their mode of life. 

Previous to settlement for the season they show considerable 
knowledge or instinct, and generally seem to choose a locality 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 37 

for the season insect life is specially abundant. At the 
e time it is noticeable that a certain number are generally 

jociated with a distinct area. Hawking singly, in pairs, 
jr in a flock constantly assembling upon the grassed ground, 
they raid. In the latter case they move by "jump" motion. 
Often does a single bird (but never a silent one) choose 
a pinnacle some twenty feet high, maybe the upper portion 
of a tree, and settling itself to the business of the evening, 
leaves its headquarters in direct pursuit of a dipterous 
or other winged insect, and returning essays another chase, 
continuing to repeat the same for a considerable time, soaring 
downwards and winging its active upward way by a series of 
rapid flaps. Previous to entering upon the serious portion of 
life, the birds assemble in flocks amongst the lower portions of 
the higher leafy vegetation, causing a vocal din such as one would 
not expect from a group of birds so graceful in their movements, 
the harsh, sharp and powerful chirps of a hundred birds, con- 
tinuously repeated, not being as pleasant (at all events somewhat 
modified) as in the sobered parents of twenty-one days later. I 
remember a large flock of the swallows taking possession of a 
cluster of timber in which were a Black Fantail, its mate, nest 
and eggs, and only occassionally could the little bird be heard. 
It tried, and generally succeeded, after they had retired for the 
night. 

The second of a weekly visit showed their desire for nest- 
building had in part set in, and the constructions were completed 
in one or two days. Some were rapid in work, others appeared 
to play in comparison. 

Artamus supercitiosus (Gould), White-eyebrowed Wood 
Swallow.- — A clutch of eggs was observed on 8th November, 
with the birds still in flocks on the 17th of the same month. 
With this species both sexes incubate. The young of others 
were on the wing by the 23rd, but before leaving the nests a 
relic of inheritance was distinctly noticeable in the horizontal 
and perpendicular motions of the short-plumaged tail, as is per- 
petual with the day movements of the parents. The fledgeling, 
when taken from the nest, announced itself by two calls — one 
imitative of the general note of the mother, though more broken 
and feeble, and the second of fear, which was the result of being 
away from its nest fifteen minutes. This bird we endeavoured to 
domesticate, but without success — it refused to eat. The eggs 
varied in markings slightly, with a deep or light ground colour — 
one egg in a set of three had the zone of spots at the narrow 
end, the other two were normal. They differed on the average 
only a shade in dimensions, and in the number to a clutch 
from four to two. Of twelve nests observed three contained 
four eggs, six three eggs, three two eggs, all well incubated. 



38 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

The nests at times, though slight in structure, were generally 
faithfully built of rootlets, or grasses, or more often twigs 
and grasses, and in many cases artistically arranged, seldom 
above six feet from the ground, and placed in all manner of 
places, preference being given to perpendicular slight stems, 
though nearly as often placed upon the horizontal firm twigs or 
branchlets of assorted shrubs and bushes. One nest was placed 
in the socket for a paddock slip panel, a second in a furze or 
whin hedge, many in bushes of the same, in Leptospermum, 
others in acacia wattles, and fewer in eucalypts, as far as this 
district is concerned. 

That these two members are here in considerable numbers 
may be deduced from the fact that forty nests — building, tenanted, 
and vacated — were observed by the writer on the 16th of Decem- 
ber within a mile, and nearly within the straight line lying between 
its termini. Two orchards, a belt of furze or whin, and an almost 
dry watercourse had to be passed through — or, rather, the creek 
was passed over, not so the orchards. The nests were placed in 
the orchards more numerously than in the legume whin, areas 
being equal. Plum, pear, apple, and cherry trees received the 
nesting honours. One nest was placed in a " sweetbriar," low to 
the ground — that is, about two feet — in the township of Surrey 
Hills. My chord of generosity was somehow struck, and I placed 
a piece of basalt in the nest, in order that the birds would be 
saved more serious distress later on. Next week the nest was 
gone, and so would have been the eggs but for the stone. This does 
not cast a reflection on Surrey Hills boys, for they are diligent. 

On a previous occasion I referred to the sensitiveness of this 
bird : its hardihood is now the chief feature, for no less than 
seven times was a nest in a young elm enclosed within a guard 
destroyed, this being done to save restless boys from making 
investigations and damage to the structural beauty of the tree. 
Each time the nest was bodily taken away, leaving only a remnant, 
the birds would persist in rebuilding it within the same fork, until 
the seventh part edifice was destroyed, and I doubt not that they 
then sought pastures new, for no further attempt was made in 
that tree. 

Artamus personaius (Gould), Masked Wood Swallow. — As 
with the previous member, it is insectivorous to a nicety, when 
opportunity occurs showing full interest in an apiary and not 
despising the odorous pear-slug, according to a neighbour market 
gardener, who remarked " an odour so powerful that we are 
obliged, when picking fruit, to keep to windward of greatly infested 
trees, and leave them to the care of Hellebore and Summer 
Birds." There is little doubt about the former, but I question 
any special service by the latter. 

Spring sees a struggle in vocal development ; its usual rapid, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 39 



asping note is left aside for a moment or two occasionally, and 
an endeavour to pour forth a bar more of melody for the benefit 
of a member of the gentler sex of its kin is made. The effort is 
great, and the result, though comparable to the song of many 
Df the bird-fauna, falls feebly and brokenly upon the ear of one 
'stomed to better results from such an effort. However, it is 
ince decided on the little varied croak that early becomes 
ordinary. 

Phis species did not appear to build as early as the former, 
nature favoured the depositing of two eggs as a clutch in the 

ajority of cases. Of 18 nests personally observed 5 contained 
each 3 eggs, 11 contained each 2 eggs, 2 contained each 1 egg. 
The young were, as a whole, well advanced in the eggs, and other 
nests with plumaged young had two in each. 

As is the manner with many other birds so is it so with these, 
that of flying angrily and boldly at you as you observe the 
perfect quiet of the young in the nest. The mother bird is more 
retiring in her fear, and the persistent darting flights almost direct 
to the intruder devolve upon the male. The interest in watching 
the movements is about as keen as is in many other families. 

On Christmas Eve I observed that two young were about to 
fly from a nest built in an odd-looking piece of dead timber near 
the ground, which I had watched for eight days past. One would 
serve as a cabinet representative specimen, so I withdrew it at 7 
p.m. For an hour and a quarter I kept fifty yards away watching 
other birds, and returning then I found the parents had removed 
the remaining young swallow, probably for preservation sake. 

Meanwhile I had extracted three fresh eggs (the third one laid 
the day previously) from another nest of this species, and placed 
therein the young bird mentioned ; the layer of the eggs, returning 
at once, looked astonished, but immediately and carefully 
gathered the young bird under its plumage. Continuing this 
mild experiment, the young feathered bird was now extracted 
after being there for fifteen minutes, and a member of the white- 
eyebrowed species, born two days previously, was placed in the 
nest, and the proprietor female bird returning a second time 
again gently covered the creature, this time almost a featherless 
one, as if it belonged to it, and the loss of three eggs was purely a 
philosophical matter. This young bird was taken through its 
cradled course of life by the ninth day later, and released on the 
same day as were the two in the nest from which it was removed. 
The young of the previous species at 24 hours of age are downy 
and well stored with vitality. The last movement of one made 
in methylated spirit was the dropping of the neck and head upon 
its chest after 20^ minutes had elapsed from its placement in 
bottle. 

The majority of nests were loosely constructed, but where 



40 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

fibrous roots were with ease available invariably they were used, 
and the results were compact nests, neatly arranged. The birds 
gather the constructive material in the vicinity of the place chosen 
for the nest, and seemingly do not care to move away from it. 

A typical example is easily noticed in the case where a fence 
divides an orchard from a gorse field ; for on the orchard side 
ten yards from the fence you will find nests constructed wholly of 
fruit tree fibrous rootlets, while on the gorse side each nest within 
the same distance is composed of grasses and twigs that can be 
gathered amongst them. There are, of course, exceptions. 

Three characters of combinative material appear to be used, 
though they pertain possibly more to local influences and may 
have but little weight in a limited study of the nests of the 
Artamidse : — i. In orchards : rootlets of the trees of same, inter- 
nally fine, but with coarse mantling. 2. In lightly timbered 
paddocks ; grass-stems principally, chlorophyll bearing before 
completion, with occasionally a few horsehairs. 3. In well- 
timbered country : twigs of the trees, with a finer internal lining 
of linear leaves. 

The bowls of all the nests are similar in dimensions, but those 
of the complete structure may vary occasionally to twice the 
normal measurements. The positions, as with the previous 
species generally range about six feet, and often enough only two, 
from the ground. Nests are placed higher in occasional places 
here, but, with the exception of Pinus insignis and a few species 
of eucalyptus, the rule is "low to mother earth." The two species 
build promiscuously, favouring a break of low shrubs which is 
used for this purpose, the nests being placed in prominent 
positions, each species as a whole keeping together, but inter- 
mixed in both cases with several of the other incubating in their 
midst. 

By the middle of December many of each species were pre- 
paring homesteads for the third brood, and seldom do they use 
the nests of a past family for a future one. Late builders were 
observed in the early portion of this month (January) carrying 
twigs. After sundown those birds not engaged in the night tasks 
cf caring for the young or eggs congregate in bodies from 10 to 
15 close to each other in a tree or shrub convenient to the nests 
and near the ground. It may be a large fruit tree, a sweetbriar 
bush, or one of many other vegetable forms. 

With both kinds I find an egg is deposited each day, and the 
clutch hatch out within twenty-four hours of each other on the 
twelfth day of sitting, and the young of the two species fly upon 
the eleventh or twelfth day from hatching, subject to a slight 
variation in a number of broods. 

This season having proved a specially favourable one, these 
notes have been jotted down from observations made in the 
district lying between Box Hill and Burwood. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 41 

ALOGUE OF VICTORIAN HETEROCERA. 
By Oswald B. Lower, F.E.S. 
Part XX. 

Family— CECOPHORID^E. 

PALPARIA. Wing. 
667. P. aurata (Palpatio, aurata, Walk., B. M. Cat., 775 ; 
Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 427, 1882). 
Gisborne, Armadale, Sale, &c. 

*668. P. lambertella, Wing (Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
428, 1882). 
Gisborne. 
*66o. P. rectiorella, Walk. (B. M. Cat., 775 ; P. aurigena, 
ib-, 775 ; P- confectella, ib., 776 ; P. rectiorella, 
Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 430, 1882). 
Moe. 

670. P. micrastrella, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W.. 433, 

1882). 
Melbourne, Gisborne. 

671. P. euryphanella, Meyr. (lor. rit., 435). 
Warragul, Gippsland. 

^672. P. semijunctella, Walk. (Tortricopsis semijunctella, Walk., 
B. M. Cat., 777 ; Palparia semijunctella, Meyr., 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 436, 1882). 
Melbourne. 

673. P. uncinella, Zeller (Cryptolechia uncinella, Zeller, Linn. 

Ent., ix. 355, x. 146, T. i., fig. i. ; Tortricopsis 
rosabella, Newra,, Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond., iii., N.S., 293 ; 
Palparia uncinella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
437, 1882). 
Gisborne, Melbourne, &c. 

674. P. pyroptis, Meyr. (MSS.) 
Melbourne. 

*675- P. aulacois, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 438, 1882). 
Geelong. 

*676. P. lithocosma, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. x., 
part iv., Appendix, page 63). 
Melbourne. 

ENCHOCRATES. Meyr. 
*677. E. glaucopis, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., p. 43, 
1882). 
Windsor, Melbourne. 

*678. E. picrophylla, Meyr. (loc. cit., vol. x., part iv., page 63). 
Windsor. 



42 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

ECLECTA. Meyr. 
LEPIDOTARSA. Meyr. 
EOCHROIS. Meyr. 
*679- E. callianassa, Meyr. (Eochroa callianassa, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 450, 1882). 
Melbourne. 

680. E. lcetiferana, Walk. (Lophoderus lostiferana, Walk., B. M. 

Cat., 336 ; CEcophora semifusella ib., 696 ; Crypto- 
lechia pudorinella, ib., 760 ; Eochroa Iceti/erana, 
Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 449, 1882). 
Melbourne. 

681. E. dejunctella, Walk. (Cryptolechia dejunctella, Walk., 

B. M. Cat., 1,036 ; Eochroa dejunctella, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 452, 1882). 
Melbourne, Gisborne, Stawell. 
*682. E. pulverulenta, Meyr. (Eochroa pulverulenta, Meyr., 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 454, 1882). 
Melbourne (Botanic Gardens). 
*683. E. protophaes, Meyr. (loc. cit., 457, 1882). 
Gisborne, Ararat, Melbourne. 

EUPHILTRA. Meyr. 
^684. E. eroticella, Meyr. (loc. cit., 458, 1882). 
Melbourne. 

ZONOPETALA. Meyr. 

685. Z. clerota, Meyr. (loc. cit., 461, 1882). 

Melbourne. 
*686. Z. glauconephela, Meyr. (loc. cit., 462, 1882). 

Trafalgar. 

687. Z. decisana, Walk. (Conchylis decisana, Walk., B. M. Cat., 

367 ; CEcophora retractella, ib., 680 ; (Ecophora 
mediella, ib., 1,033 > (Ecophora ustella, Walk., loc. 
cit., 678 ; Zonopetala decisana, Meyr., Proc. Lin. 
Soc. N.S.W., 463, 1882). 
Melbourne. 

688. Z. erythrosema, Meyr. (loc. cit, vol. x., part iv., 

Appendix, p. 65). 
Melbourne. 
*689- Z. synarthra, Meyr. (loc. cit., p. 65, Appendix). 
Trafalgar. 

HELIOCAUSTA. Meyr. 
^690. H. inceptella, Walk. (Cryptolechia inceptella, Walk., 
B. M. Cat., 759 ; ' Heliocausta inceptella, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 469, 1882). 
Gisborne, Melbourne, Moe. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 43 



691. H. severa, Meyr. (loc. cil., 471, 1882). 
Gisborne, Melbourne. 

*6g2. H. mimica, Meyr. (loc. cit. } vol. ii., Appendix, p. 934, 
1887). 

693. H. limbata, Meyr. (loc. cit, p. 471, 1882). 
Melbourne. 

694. H. epidesma, Meyr. (loc. cit., Appendix, 68). 
Melbourne. 

695. H. hemiteles, Meyr. (loc. cit., vii., 475, 1882). 
Gisborne, Melbourne. 

*6g6. H. eljEODes, Meyr. (loc. cit , 474, 18S2). 
In railway carriage at Prahran (at light). 

697. H. triph/ENATELLa, Walk. (Crt/ptolechia triphcenaiella, 
Walk., B. M. Cat., 753 ; C. cecophorella, ib., 760 ; 
Heliocausta triphcenaiella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W., 477, 1882). 
Melbourne, Daylesford, &c. 

♦698. H. paralyrgis, Meyr. (loc. cit, 479, 1882). 
Melbourne, Stawell, &c. 

^699. H. eudoxa, Meyr. (loc. cit, Appendix, 67). 
Melbourne, Mornington. 

*7oo. H. parthenopa, Meyr. (loc. cit, 481, 1882). 
Ringwood. 

*7oi. H. euselma, Meyr. (loc. cit, 483, 1882). 
Brighton, Stawell, &c. 

EUCH^TIS. Meyr. 

*702. E. habrocosma, Meyr. (loc. cit, 484, 1882). 
Stawell. 

*703- E. metallota, Meyr. (loc. cit, 486, 1882). 
Melbourne (Albert Park Cricket Ground). 

*704. E. rhizobola, Meyr. (loc. cit, vol. 1887, 937). 
Melbourne, Gisborne. 

*7o5- E. iospila, Meyr. (loc. cit., 938, 1887). 
Melbourne. 

*7o6. E. holoclera, Meyr. (loc. cit, 940, 1887). 
Stawell. 

707. E. sarcoxantha, Lower (Tr. Roy. Soc. S A.) 

EURYPLACA. Meyr. 
*7o8. E. ocellifera, Meyr. (loc. cit, 488, 1882). 
Gisborne, Melbourne, Dandenong Ranges. 



44 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

709. E. demotica, Meyr. (loc. cit., 489, 1882). 
Gisborne, Frankston, Ringwood, Melbourne. 

NYMPHOSTOLA. Meyr. 
PROTEODES. Meyr. 
(The above two genera are restricted to New Zealand.) 

HOPLITICA. 
*7io H. sobriella, Walk. (Depressaria sobriella, Walk., B. M. 
Cat., 565 ; Hoplitica sobriella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W., 495, 1882). 
Gisborne, Melbourne, &c. 
'•'711. H. myodes, Meyr. (loc. cit., 496, 1882). 

Melbourne. 
*7i2. H. sericata, Meyr. (loc. cit., 498, 1882). 

Melbourne. 
*7 13. H. carnea, Zeller (Cryptolechia carnea, Zeller, Linn. Ent., 
x., 148 ; Hoplitica carnea, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W., 488, 1882). 
Gisborne, Randwick, &c. 
714. H. repandula, Zeller (Cryptolechia repandula, Zeller, 
Linn. Ent., x., 150, fig. iii. ; Hoplitica repandula, 
Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 499, 1882). 
Melbourne, Gisborne, Fernshaw. 
*y 15. H. pudica, Zeller (Cryptolechia pudica, Zeller, Linn. Ent., 
x., 152 ; Hoplitica pudica, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W., 500, 1882). 
Melbourne, Gisborne, &c. 
*7i6. H. leucerythra, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 50 r, 
1882). 
Gisborne, Melbourne, &c. 

717. H. liosarca, Meyr. (loc. cit., vol. ii., 1887, p. 941). 
Melbourne. 

718. H. colonias, Meyr. (loc. cit., 942, 1887). 
Bairnsdale, Moe. 

♦719. H. rufa, Meyr. (loc. cit., 504, 1882). 
Gisborne, Melbourne, &c. 

720. H. absumptella, Walk. (Depressaria absumptella, Walk., 

B. M. Cat., 567 ; Hoplitica absumptella, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 505, 1882). 
Melbourne, Oakleigh, Gisborne. 

721. H. callianthes, Meyr. (loc. cit., vol. iii., 1888, 1,595). 
Fernshaw. 

722. H. thyteria, Meyr. (loc, cit,, 1,596, 1888). 
Melbourne. 



THE 



tyictovian igtatttralt^t* 

Vol. XIII.— No. L JULY, 1896. No. 152. 

{PUBLISHED AUGUST 6, 1S96.) 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal Society's 
Hall on Monday evening, 13th July, 1896. The president, 
Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A., occupied the chair, and about 
70 members and visitors were present. 

The President announced that an almost complete set of the 
periodical Natural Science had been presented to the Club's 
library by Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, and that the Committee had 
decided in future to add the publication to the list of magazines 
purchased for the use of the members. 

Mr. G. Coghill drew attention to the publication of Warne's 
" Royal Natural History," which is being republished in weekly 
parts. 

PAPERS. 

1. By Mr. J. Gabriel, F.L.S., entitled "Collecting in Riverina 
During Full Flood." 

The author gave an interesting account of a collecting trip to 
the Riverina District, N.S.W., during the spring, when the country 
is to a great extent flooded, and recorded much valuable infor- 
mation on the birds of the district between Deniliquin and the 
Murray. The paper was well illustrated by some fifty splendid 
limelight views, and also by specimens of the birds' eggs referred to. 

Some discussion ensued, in which Messrs A. Coles and C. 
French took part. 

2. By Mr. C. C. Brittlebank, entitled " Notes on the So-called 
Miocene Deposits of Bacchus Marsh." 

The author gave a brief description of the characteristic 
features of the district, with more detailed explanations and 
measurements of the sections exposed in the valleys of the rivers 
and creeks. Carefully prepared drawings of sections were shown 
to illustrate the paper. 

In the discussion which followed, Messrs. G. Sweet, F.G.S., 
T. S. Hall, M.A., and H. R. Hogg, M.A., took part. 

Mr. J. Searle exhibited lantern slide of photograph of mouse 
taken by Rontgen rays. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

i. By Mr. A. Coles, on "A Supposed New Species of Sandpiper 
from Western Port, Victoria, probably between the Curlew Sand- 
piper and the Great Sandpiper." 

[This bird has been identified by Mr. A. J. Campbell, F.L.S., 



«<r-ir~ff 



46 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

as the Knot, Tringa canutus. His remarks appear on a sub- 
sequent page. — Ed. Victorian Naturalist.} 

2. By Mr. D. M'Alpine, F.C.S.— " Note on a Fungus on a 
Beetle." The writer described the fungus, which is new to science, 
as Botrytis angulata. It was found by Mr. H. Giles at Trentham, 
Victoria, on the beetle Ceratognathus Westwoodi. 

EXHIBITION OF SPECIMENS. 

The following were the principal exhibits of the evening : — By 
Mr. A. Coles. — Weed and water from the Gulf Stream off English 
coast ; specimen of fossil shells from below bed of the Thames, 
England; also three Sandpipers, referred to in natural history note. 
By Mr. C. French, F.L.S. — Rare Beetles: Hypocephalus armatus, 
from Cayenne ; Megasoma elephas, from Costa Rica ; Chalcosoma 
Atlas, from Java; also drawings of life-history of Strongylor- 
hynchns ochraceus, by Mr. C. C. Brittlebank. By Mr. C. French, 
jun. — Eggs of Brown Gerygone, Northern Fantail, King Lory, 
Black-breasted Turnix, Beautiful Parrakeet, from North Queens- 
land ; also, rare egg of Crested Hawk, from New South Wales. 
By Mr. J. Gabriel, F.L.S. — Eggs of the following birds, collected 
at Riverina, N.S.W., viz. : — Australian Shoveller, Black Duck 
(clutch, ii eggs), Australian Teal (clutch, 8 eggs), Wood Duck, 
Bittern (clutch, 5 eggs), White Ibis (clutch, 4 eggs), Semipalmated 
Goose, Spotted Bower Bird, Pied Grallina, Black-breasted Plover, 
Native Companion, Emu (clutch, 9 eggs) ; also eggs of Gerygone 
culiciosra, a rare species, from Central Australia. By Mr. R. 
Hall. — Lyre Bird, young (10 days old) ; eggs, two varieties ; and 
photograph of nest. By Mr. J. A. Kershaw. — Acrobates 
pygmceus, Shaw ; Opossum Mouse, with three young, taken from 
nest composed of gum leaves under bark of large eucalypt, South 
Gippsland. By Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G., &c— Necklace 
made from seeds of a Wild Banana, sent by Sir William Mac- 
gregor, who obtained it from the natives at the Mambare River, 
New Guinea. By Mr. J. Shephard.— Mounted Charcesium 
under microscope. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



EXCURSION TO STUDLEY PARK. 

About half a dozen members of the Club took part in the ex- 
cursion to Studley Park on Saturday, 21st March, 1896, which 
was devoted to geology, and principally to the examination of 
the Silurian rocks which are so well exposed in the locality. We 
met on the Johnston-street Bridge, and on crossing the river 
turned to the left along a road which has been cut to the Pumping 
Station just below the falls. This cutting along the steep hillside 
which forms the left bank of the stream, shows a most instructive 
section of the older rocks. No fossils were found, and, indeed, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 47 

no time was spent in looking for them, as when they do occur in 
our Upper Silurians they are usually confined to thin bands inter- 
bedded with thick series of unfossiliferous rocks. The evidence 
of the fossils obtained from similar-looking rocks elsewhere about 
Melbourne has, however, enabled their age to be determined. 
In consequence of the absence of fossils, we spent a considerable 
time in examining and discussing the effects of rock folding as 
shown in the cutting. It is always well to begin at the very 
beginning, and to make sure of our foundation before erecting 
the superstructure, so it may be pointed out that the rocks in 
question were laid down as a series of sheets at the bottom of the 
sea. That it was a salt, and not a fresh water deposit, we learn 
from the nature of the fossils before alluded to. On first entering 
the cutting, it was noticed that thin beds of sandstone alternated 
with thin beds of shale. This, of course, showed that the condi- 
tions of deposition were constantly changing, that the ocean 
currents were at one time sufficiently rapid to roll along grains of 
sand and spread them evenly on the bottom, and at the same 
time too strong to allow the fine mud to settle to any great extent; 
while at another period of deposition they were so feeble that 
they could not bring the sand grains from the wasting land 
surfaces, and the suspended mud slowly sank to the bottom, 
which it covered with a series of thin uniform sheets. 

The numerous spangles of mica in the rock may have been 
derived from older rocks, which supplied the material of their 
mass, or may have been subsequently formed in the rock itself. 
The rocks as we see them to-day are strangely twisted and 
crumpled. The beds in which they were laid down no longer 
preserve their horizontal position but are inclined at various 
angles to the horizon, and are in places broken and faulted 
where the strain caused by the folding grew too strong for them 
to withstand. Several of these faultings were noticed, and it was 
seen that in many cases the walls of the faults were smoothed and 
scratched by the rock movement which had taken place. The 
direction of the scratchings, or " slickensides," as they are called, 
was not vertical but inclined downwards towards the south and 
up towards the north. This showed that the movement had not 
taken place vertically but in a north and south direction, with, 
at the same time, a distinct movement downwards towards the 
south. The foldings of the rock as exposed to our view might 
be compared to gigantic sheets of corrugated iron stacked up and 
looked at endwise, but with this pecularity, that the stack was not 
on level ground, but one end of each sheet was considerably 
lower than the other. This endlong slope of the sheets is known 
as " pitch," or among the Bendigo miners as " dip." The 
pitch wherever we noticed it along the cutting was to the south. 
The effect of pitch on the outcrop on a horizontal surface was 



48 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

noticed, but would require either actual examples or models to 
make it clear. The peculiar sinuosities of the outcropping rock, 
which are due to this pitch, are clearly seen on the road surface 
and on the hilltop to the northward. One very fine example nearer 
to Kew has been ruthlessly hidden by the asphalting of the 
footpath. 

On a careful examination it was remarked that the crumplings 
of the rock which were first seen are merely minor ones on a 
great fold, the axis of which lies near the western end of the 
cutting. The axis of the fold, which shows of course the lowest 
or oldest of the series exposed, is occupied by blue rubbly shales, 
which have weathered somewhat more readily than the thick 
bedded sandstones immediately overlying them, so that very 
little rock is seen cropping out near the axis itself, while on 
either side a wall of sandstone stands up, the sandstone part of 
the arch of the fold having disappeared. 

In some of the minor crumplings some very interesting points 
were noticed, which showed in miniature what occurs elsewhere 
on the large scale. A bed of sandstone is much less com- 
pressible than a bed of shale, and when a series of such sand- 
stones and shales are folded by strong lateral pressure there is a 
tendency for cavities to form along the crest of the arch. Into 
these regions the shales are forced like rolled out dough, so that 
in the crest of the arch the bed is perhaps twice as thick as on its 
flanks. Time would fail us were we to discuss the presence and 
probable causes of quartz veins such as were seen in the faults 
and joints, the minerals coating the joints, and the character of 
the joints themselves, the colour stains due to weathering, and 
the numerous other points which are so readily illustrated in 
the field, and which a mere brief description would leave 
unintelligible. 

Two dykes of some rock allied to basalt were seen, but were 
decomposed to a greasy clay. Our previous trips, however, 
enabled the members to recognize the clay as probably derived 
from such a rock when they were questioned as to its nature. 

Leaving the cutting we climbed to the top of the hill by 
Bight's Falls, and saw the great plain formed by the lava flow, 
and standing out from it like islands the series of hills on which 
Melbourne stands, the Northcote hill, and the great Silurian area 
to the westward. 

From here we went to the gravel pits near the old toll bar, and 
a few minutes were spent in discussing the more characteristic 
features of the deposit. It was pointed out that heavy quartz 
gravel under the influence of running water would collect at the 
bottom of a valley, so that what is now a hill top must have in 
former times been the bed of a stream, or have been near the 
shore of a sea. The gravel cappings of other hills in and around 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 49 

Melbourne was called to mind — for instance, that on which Christ 
Church, Hawthorn, stands ; the Northcote hill ; the ridge which 
runs through West Brunswick, Royal Park, North Melbourne, 
and as far as the Law Courts, which are all capped by gravel 
beds, which have effectually guarded them from denudation, while 
the surrounding hills have been greatly lowered or removed 
altogether. The amount of denudation that this would imply was 
considerably more than some of the members were prepared for, 
and I am afraid that some of them remained somewhat sceptical 
in spite of the arguments employed for their conversion. — -T. S. 
Hall. 



THE FLIGHT OF SEA BIRDS. 

By H. R. Hogg, M.A. 

(Read before Field Naturalists'' Club of Victoria, Sth June, 1896. ) 

At the meeting of this club on ioth February, 1896, Mr. H. P. C. 
Ashworth read an interesting paper on the flight of the albatross 
(printed in the Victorian Naturalist for April, 1896, vol. xiii., 
page 11). However, in spite of his accurate description of the 
movements of the bird, deduced from observation of the Shy 
Albatross (Thalassogeron cautus, Gould) at their breeding station 
on the Hunter Group of islands in Bass Strait, he appears to 
come to no very definite conclusion as to its method of pro- 
pulsion. I venture, therefore, to add a few notes, in which I 
hope to be able to make clear to you the principles which my 
own observations, spread over a good many years and the 
course of numerous voyages, have led me to believe are those 
which enable not only the powerful albatross, but many other 
much smaller birds to keep on the wing for days together con- 
secutively. 

The principle is the same from the albatross to the Cape 
Pigeon (Daption capensis) and Stormy Petrel (Procellaria fregata), 
though the smaller the bird the more often it makes use of the 
ordinary methods of other birds' flight, the reason of which I 
will try to show you. I include as sea birds those which, having 
three wing joints, are able to wander long distances from land, 
as opposed to those dwellers on the coast-line which, having two 
joints, can only sustain themselves in the air by means of con- 
stantly flapping their pinions, and therefore with laboured flight 
soon tire, and have to rest so constantly that they never go far 
from shore, and when seen by an ocean voyager are an unerring 
sign that he is nearing land. 

The true sea birds, except during a comparatively short period 
of the year when they are engaged in the duties of incubation, 
spend their lives seeking their food over a wide expanse of ocean 
and more especially affect the colder zones of the unfrozen parts 



50 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

of the sea. They are, in fact, the scavengers which clear the 
surface of the water of those impurities which would otherwise 
arise from floating dead bodies. This obliges them to scour 
hundreds of miles of sea surface every day, and the muscular 
power required to enable a frail creature to perform this task 
would overbalance the other functional developments of its body 
unless that labour were reduced to a minimum. As we see, these 
birds do perform their flight in a marvellously easy and graceful 
style, sailing about for hours at a stretch without any flapping 
motion of their wings, and clearly with a minimum of fatigue to 
themselves. This enables them to follow a ship for thousands of 
miles. 

The question, how they manage to propel themselves without 
striking the air with their wings, whilst, as often as not, following 
a steamer in the face of a heavy gale, has puzzled many. 
Their real means of so doing seems to have led to misapprehen- 
sion among many of our keenest observers and most thoughtful 
minds. How, then, is this performed? The subject naturally 
separates itself into three divisions — the bird's means of suspen- 
sion in the air, its power of rising, and its method of propulsion. 
Although the other points present many interesting problems, 
I shall confine myself at present more particularly to their 
act of piopulsion. I will, however, call your attention to just 
two points in regard to their means of suspension in the air : — 
(i.) It is clear that a bird's power of hovering at all must result 
from its weight being insufficient to compress the air underlying 
its outstretched wings and tail — i.e., the area of the wing and 
tail surface must be proportionate to the weight of the bird and 
the density of the air. This evening we will not go into 
calculation of what area would be required under different 
conditions, as we have the experimental fact before us that 
the area provided for the bird by nature is sufficient for the 
purpose. This requisite expanse of wing in sea birds is 
provided by their third pinion joint, which allows so much 
narrower a wing and more command over the action of 
turning the feathers than is the case with eagles, hawks, 
and vultures, which have the same power of hovering and sailing 
with motionless wings, but can rest more often, and, therefore, 
do not require to husband their resources to the same extent. 
Birds with a relatively smaller area of wing and tail have con- 
tinuously to strike and compress the air in order to sustain the 
weight of their bodies. (2.) Again, a piece of the heaviest metal 
may be beaten out into so thin a sheet that if the air does not 
pass through its substance it will float in a horizontal position, 
because its weight is not sufficiently great to immediately com- 
press the volume of air underlying it. After the lapse, however, 
of a definitely long instant of time, the air is slightly compressed, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 51 

and with compression begins to flow out round the edges of the 
sheet, which then begins to descend with a gradual increasing 
velocity. If, however, the sheet be in motion in the direction of 
its plane it may have moved, during that instant of time, from 
the column of air it was beginning to compress, on to an adjoin- 
ing column and off this again before it has had time to actually 
compress it, and thus sail along hardly losing anything in vertical 
distance. Similarly a bird that, when hanging motionless in the 
air, would have to extend its feathers to their greatest expanse, so 
much so that it looks as if there were a strain on its muscles to keep 
them out when moving, can glide easily through the air, resting 
as it were on a cushion, without using any expansive strain, and 
may even lessen its horizontal area — which it does by turning 
partly on one side — without compressing the underlying air, and 
so subsiding, at all. 

Now with regard to the bird's means of rising through the air, 
what can it do? Our thin sheet of metal, or bird, after a little 
time of suspension over a given point tends to fall. Thus in 
quite calm air the bird, even to sustain itself, and much more if it 
wishes to rise, must strike the air with its wings as a fish's tail 
or a steamer's screw blades strike the water — in order to press 
them along. Not so, however, if there be a current of air 
pressing against the bird or sheet of metal, for if either of 
them be held at an angle to the current of air its weight 
begins to act as the string of a kite and prevents its being 
carried backward with the wind ; and the current presses 
against them because of their inertia, resolving itself into two 
forces — one pushes against the bird or plate and the other along 
its plane at right angles to the former, thrusting it upwards or 
downwards as the slope is towards or away from the direction of 
the current ; but the bird or thin sheet moves most readily in the 
direction of the least resistance and it rises more than it goes 
backward if it hangs at a smaller angle to the vertical than to the 
horizontal. Of course, if there be an upward current from the 
surface of the sea the bird will rise in the air while in a horizontal 
position, and has no need to place its body on an inclined plane. 
It has also been shown mathematically that when successive 
strata of air have each successively greater velocities, as happens 
when the lower currents are stopped by friction of the earth's 
surface, the bird can acquire a momentum which helps it to rise, 
but it is difficult to believe that the bird is dependent on these 
irregular aids for what it has to do every few minutes every day 
of its life. 

The resultant pressure of the air on the bird's wings and body 
acts as if the whole were concentrated at a point called the centre 
of pressure, which, as the bird is symmetrical on either side, 
lies in a section through the middle of its head, back, and tail, 



52 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

and as the wings are placed well forward the point on which the 
pressure acts is well forward in this section. Similarly, its weight 
acts as if it were all collected at the centre of gravity, situated in 
the same plane but somewhere about the middle and behind the 
centre of pressure. Thus the pressure pushes at a point between 
the head and the centre of gravity. This is what ensures the 
bird's going head foremost, instead of tail foremost. 

If a bird wishes to rise in the air head uppermost it has to 
turn its face to the wind, but if with the wind behind it, it must 
turn head downwards and tail uppermost, which it can and does 
do perfectly well, though it must involve a more difficult feat of 
balancing. With a wind behind and its head up, the bird would 
be driven downwards, and therefore has to assume a nearly 
horizontal position, or one slightly bending downwards. As the 
bird has to look for its food on the surface of the water, this is 
the position it actually does retain on the average. 

A sea bird, then, without flapping its wings has the power of 
suspending itself in the air, and it has also the power of rising 
vertically, or vertically with a slight backward movement, if there 
be a wind ; but how does it do if it wants to move forward 
against the wind, still without flapping ? 

I must show you, firstly premising that few birds fly much, if 
ever for more than a short distance, dead against the wind, but 
almost invariably cross and recross its direction at suitable 
angles, seldom even forty-five degrees, and more generally not 
nearer than at about sixty degrees, to its direction, that when 
it wishes to go against the wind, if without way on, or 
near the surface of the water, the bird first simply rises 
vertically by one of the methods above described, or if 
there be no wind, makes a few strokes with its wings. It 
then, turning head downwards, slides down the cushion of 
air at any desired angle, the momentum of its weight 
carrying it forward and overcoming the pressure of the wind. 
As it nears the surface of the water, it again turns upward the 
plane of its wings, as a diver turns his hands up from his out- 
stretched arms when he wishes to rise to the surface, and is 
carried on by the same momentum upwards to a level not quite 
that from which it started, having lost a small vertical space 
varying with the pressure of the wind against it. It then turns 
downward, and repeats the process, thus crossing and recrossing 
the direction of the wind, and either at an interval of several 
crossings, or at the end of each crossing, recovers the lost 
vertical distance by one of the methods previously described. 
This method is the same as that of tobogganing cars, which slide 
down an incline, and with their momentum go over a smaller 
hillock, and so on again ; but the friction of the air against the 
slide, as well as the pressure of the air, stops them. A bird has 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 53 



the pressure of the air only to stop it, the friction of the passing 
air being comparatively small. 

Supposing the bird under the influence of the force of gravity 
to go 30 or 40 knots an hour, and never nearer than at an angle 
of 60 degrees to the direction of the wind, it could still keep up 
with a steamer going 12 knots an hour dead against the wind, 
and, as many birds can with ease go more nearly 50 or 60 miles 
an hour, it will be realized that a heavy bird can readily follow 
any of our ocean steamers on a head to wind course. Although, 
as I have said, they do not seem to me usually to go head to 
wind, still, by this process, they could, if sufficiently heavy, quite 
easily dive right into the wind, rising again vertically at the end 
of each dive. Even this proceeding, however, would hardly 
justify Sir Walter Buller's statement, quoted by Mr. Ashworth 
("Trans. N.Z. Inst.," vol. xxvi.), that " the flight of the albatross 
is a rapid, well-sustained motion, ever against the wind, with 
scarcely any visible movement of the wings." It will be seen 
that, in my explanation, although a strong wind helps the bird 
more easily to rise to the height required for its momentum, still a 
high wind materially affects its rate of progress, and to a light bird 
the strength of the same wind appears proportionately greater than 
to a heavy one, in exactly the same way as a large steamer is less 
affected by a high sea than a smaller one. Thus Stormy Petrels, 
Whale Birds, &c, when flying rapidly, make more use of their 
pinions than the larger birds. The wonderful mastery these birds 
possess over the movements of their bodies while hanging in the 
air, their graceful balancing and delicate adjustment of the plane 
of their feathers to the air current, is only equalled among human 
beings by the movements of an accomplished skater, or of a 
skilful gymnast, and doubtless has to be acquired by young birds 
as the result of practice. 



REMARKS ON A WILD BANANA OF NEW GUINEA, 
Bv Baron von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 
In the 10th volume of the " Proceedings of the Linnean Society 
of New South Wales," p. 348 (1885), the late Mr. N. de Miklouho- 
Maclay alluded to a Musa from New Guinea " with fruits con- 
taining very large, irregularly shaped seeds (about 10 mm. long 
and 1 1 mm. in diameter), which when ripe are of a brilliant 
black colour and are greatly used by the natives as ornaments." 
In the same volume, p. 356, the writer of these remarks offered 
from personal inspection fuller notes on these seeds, and gave 
then to this species the name M. ca'osperma, when also an account 
of the Papuan M. Maclayi was given. In a letter, written in 
Sydney on the 4th September, 1885, the distinguished Russian 
naturalist mentioned (here translated) " Musa calosperma seems to 



54 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

occur only sparingly on the Maclay-Coast (that part of the north 
coast, which stretches from Cape Croisilles to Cape King William), 
but is said to be very frequent near the south-eastern point of 
New Guinea and on the Louisiade Archipelagos." Towards the 
end of last year Sir William Macgregor saw 35 miles up on the 
Mambare-River this same Musa. In reference to this his Ex- 
cellency writes me under date 15th December, 1895 : — " I had a 
specimen brought on board the Merrie England, where I invited 
Mr. W. Fitzgerald to study it. He undertook to send you his 
description of it. I enclose a sketch of the fruit by Mr. Winter. 
The bunch of fruits would have weighed nearly 1 cwt. It is not 
edible. The seeds are used for making beads. It is a fine 
handsome plant." 

From Mr. Fitzgerald's notes, forwarded by him from Cooktovvn 
on the 7th February, 1896, and now given with some alterations 
in the organography words, I extract as essential the following : — 
" I did not collect the specimens of the Banana, which grow on 
the Mambare-River. Mr. Butterworth on the request of Sir 
William Macgregor brought a spike on board. Height 15-25 
feet. Stem stout. Leaves 8 to 10 feet in length, 2-3 feet across. 
Spike (thyrsoid raceme) pendulous, 3^ feet long by the same (in 
largest) circumference (as regards the fruit masses seen). Bracts 
broadly ovate (very acute according to Mr. Winter's delineation) 
9-12 inches long, bright-green. 

Flowers numerous, %-i inch in length, white, the lobes of the 
calyx firm, linear with sharply recurved margins ; corolla-lobes 
small, membranous ; stigma trifid ; fruit about 3 inches long by 
\y 2 inches in diameter, outside pale-yellow; pulp whitish, 
streaked with purple. Seeds 24-28 ; testa bony, black. Albument 
mealy, bitter. The fruit is not eaten by the natives, known to 
them by the name Tubi. 

From a necklace, made of these seeds and transmitted by the 
Lieutenant-Governor, may be added, that the seeds attain the 
length of half an inch and are often semi-ovate in form. The 
necklaces are called by the Autochthones gudugudu. Mr. 
Winter's drawing (of much reduced size) indicates the flowers 
and fruits forming a total mass of ovate-conic form with crowded 
bracts. 

M. Fitzalani, as here recognized, differs from M. calosperma 
already in the comparative paucity of flowers at least within some 
of the bracts and in pulpless fruits with much smaller seeds. 
M. Hillii, which through Mr. Berthoud is now known also from 
the Johnstone-River, is more widely separated by still more 
gigantic size, by a raceme erect at least during flowering time, 
as well illustrated in Sir Joseph Hooker's Botanic Magazine, 7,401 
(1895), by its longer and less acute bracts, by yellowish flowers, 
by proportionately broader fruits with yellow pulp and smaller 
seeds. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 55 



M. Sesmanni (Gardeners' Chronicle, third series, vol. viii., p. 182 
[1890], with a xylogram from a photogram by His Excellency Sir 
John Thurston) belongs also to the series of species with erect 
inflorescence, but may perhaps be identical with M. Fehi of 
Tahiti and New Caledonia, as suggested in the Kew Index. I 
have not succeeded to identify M. calosperma with any of the 
thirty-five congeners recorded by Mr. Baker in the "Annals of 
Botany," vol. vii., and in Dyer's Kew Bidletin for 1894. 

Should on further access to ampler material the Musa, brought 
under extended notice now, prove specifically distinct from Mr. 
Maclay's plant, then it is to bear the name of Sir William 
Macgregor. Attention may yet be drawn at this apt opportunity 
to a Musa of extraordinary ornamental value, to which Dr. 
Warburg refers (in Professor Engler's " Kahr-Buecher," xiii., 
274), with totally red leaves, cultivated by aborigines in New 
Britain, but indigenous to the Solomon-Islands. It may only be 
a variety of some well-known species, but is wanting in Australian 
gardens like elsewhere yet. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTE.— THE KNOT. 

At the last (July) meeting of the Field Naturalists' Club I was 
much interested in seeing a group of three Knots (Tringa 
canutus) exhibited by Mr. A. Coles. A male bird appeared in 
its full breeding plumage of rich chestnut, and one wonders 
what the birds were doing on the shores of Western Port, 
Victoria, in the middle of May, when they should have been 
commencing domestic duties in Northern Siberia or other arctic 
regions. 

Like many of our migratory sandpipers, &c, the Knot occa- 
sionally visits us from these far-off regions to winter with us 
{i.e., to escape the arctic winter). The Knot was first noticed in 
Australia near Brisbane, 2nd September, 1862. Since, it has 
been observed in New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. 
Our National Museum, Melbourne, I believe, possesses examples, 
and odd birds have been exhibited for sale in the city together 
with snipe. I was therefore surprised to hear the announcement 
at the meeting that the bird was unknown, and was not figured 
in Gould. Splendid figures of the Knot may be seen at the 
Public Library, in Gould's " Birds of Great Britain," vol. iv., 
plate 65. A. J. Campbell. 

Armadale, 15 th July. 



We are pleased to learn that Mr. T. S. Hart, M.A., an 
enthusiastic member of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 
has been appointed Lecturer on Geology and Botany at the 
School of Mines, Ballarat. 



56 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



A FUNGUS ON A BEETLE. 

By D. M'Alpine. 

Botrytis angulata, n. sp. — Angular Botrytis. Dirty-white tufts 

issuing from interior of body, and forming a continuous mass 

over various portions of it, but mostly on under surface. 

Hyphae slender, colourless, sparingly branched, septate, average 
2 fi. diameter. 

Fertile hyphae forming very minute, chalky-white, globular heads of 
gonidia (only seen with magnifying glass) about 34-36 fi. diameter ; 
variously branched, dichotomously or at right angles, and ultimate 
branchlets becoming very much attenuated. The ultimate branch- 
lets are usually zig-zag in shape, ending in a knob and with little 
projecting points at each angle to which gonidia are attached. 

Gonidia spherical, hyaline, regular in size and shape, 1.5-2 p. 
diameter. 

On Ceratognathus Westwoodi, Trentham, Victoria. 

This specimen was sent to me by my colleague, Mr. C. French, 
F.L.S., and was found by Mr. H. Giles. I determined the fungus 
to be a Botrytis, and on communicating with Professor Saccardo, 
he considered it to be a new species. The genus Botrytis is sub- 
divided by Saccardo according as the tips of the branchlets are 
acute (Eubotrytris), or thickened and rather obtuse (Polyactis), or 
inflated and warty (Phymatotrichum), or obtuse and spiny 
(Cristularia). As the tips here are thickened and obtuse, without 
either warts or spines, the species belongs to the Polyactis division. 
It has a resemblance to B. tenella, Sacc, in the size of the spores, 
which, however, has acute-tipped branchlets. The short, sharp 
turns of the branchlets, giving them a zig-zag appearance, are very 
characteristic, hence the specific name. 13th July, 1896. 



Double Nest of Black and White Fantail. — I have 
received the following interesting note with reference to a nest 
exhibited at a recent meeting of the Field Naturalists' Club (vol. 
xiii., page 2), which perhaps may be of interest to some members 
of the Club. — C. French, jun. : — " I thank you very much for 
the portion of dead branch bearing the two conjoined nests of 
the Black and White Fantail, the whole forming an interesting 
nidiological curiosity. The half-overturned nest has been occupied 
by a brood of young. Probably the same parent birds built the 
newer home, which contained eggs, as found by Master W. Shep- 
herd. These birds are persistent nest-builders. It is recorded 
that a pair one season constructed no less than four nests, and 
deposited eggs therein, which were either destroyed or stolen 
before the birds succeeded in rearing a family. The Black and 
White Fantail often rears three families in a season. Once I 
heard of two broods being reared one after another in the same 
nest — an unusual thing for Fantails, because they generally con- 
struct a new nest for each family. — Yours, &c, A. J. Campbell." 



THK 



U t c t o v i a n |t atxxvalx&t. 

Vol. XIII.— No. 5. AUGUST, 1896. No. 153. 

(PUBLISHED SEPTEMBER 10, 1S96.) 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, ioth August, 1896. The 
president, Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A., occupied the chair, 
and some 60 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the excursion to Sandringham on Saturday, 18th 
July, was read by the leader, Mr. C. French, jun., who stated that 
a fairly successful outing was experienced, the most notable plants 
found in flower being Pterostylis vittata, P. longifolia, and 
Eriochilus autumnalis (the usual flowering season of this orchid 
being April and May). The curious little plant, Phylloglossviii 
Drummondi, was noted in fruit. 

The lion, secretary read a report of the practical meeting held 
on Monday evening, 27th July, when Mr. J. Shephard gave a 
demonstration of botanical section cutting and staining to a 
fair attendance of members. Sections of stems of the Wattle, 
Sheoak, and other native plants were prepared and stained, 
attention being drawn to the interesting differential staining 
effects produced. 

PAPERS. 

1. By Mr. H. T. Tisdall, entitled " Under Eastern Baw-Baw." 
The author gave an interesting account of a recent collecting 

trip in the Walhalla district. His search was principally directed 
to the cryptogamic flora, and a large number of species of 
fungi were obtained. The paper was illustrated with coloured 
drawings by the author. 

Some remarks on the paper were made by Messrs. J. G. 
Luehmann and D. Best. 

2. By Mr. R. Hall, entitled " Box Hill Birds in July, 1896." 
The author, in a series of interesting notes, dealt principally 

with the effect of an early spring on the avi-fauna of the district. 
Some reference was made to the question of the transitional 
changes of plumage in the male of the Superb Warbler (Blue 
Wren), Malurus cyaneus, Lath., and a series of skins obtained in 
different seasons during several years was exhibited. 

The president, Messrs. C. Frost, A. Coles, G. Coghill, and 
others took part in the discussion which ensued. 



lib 



6* 



58 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



EXHIBITION OF SPECIMENS. 

The following were the principal exhibits of the evening : — By 
Mr. A. Coles. — Specimen of Tiger Snake, 6 feet 10 inches long, 
killed at Mildura, the largest known Tiger Snake ever killed. 
By Mr. C. French, F.L.S. — Cylas formicarius, a new insect pest 
introduced from Mauritius. This beetle has by some means 
been introduced into Queensland, where it is spreading rapidly, 
and specimens have also been found in Victoria, having been 
detected in some sweet potatoes imported from Queensland. By 
Mr. C. French, jun. — Orchid, Pterostylis concinna, with two 
flowers on one stem, collected at Sandringham by Mr. Wauer. 
By Mr. Haase. — Orchids in flower, viz. : Pterostylis pedunculata, 
P. longifolia, P. curia, Acianthus exsertus, A. caudatus, 
Chiloglottis diphylla, and Cyrtostylis reniformis, collected by 
Mr. Paul at Grantville. By Mr. G. E. F. Hill.— Long-tailed 
Cuckoo, Eudynamis tartensis, Tui Tui or Parson Bird, Phos- 
t/iemadera Novm Zealandite, from New Zealand ; also, Red-tailed 
Tropic Bird, from Chatham Islands. By Mr. A. Mattingley. — 
Striped Phalanger and Cattle Ticks from Herbert River, 
Queensland. By Mr. F. Spry. — Silurian Fossils from sewer, 
Domain-road, South Yarra, obtained 90 feet below surface. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



ORNITHOLOGICAL NOTES FROM CENTRAL 
AUSTRALIA. 
By G. A. Keartland. 
Part I. — Raptores. 
(Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, Uth May, 189G.) 
In noticing the various forms of bird life in any part of the 
globe, it is always advisable to note not only the geological and 
botanical surroundings, but also the effect of climatic influences. 
Whilst the cold icy region of the Arctic Circle is undoubtedly 
the home of Grallatores and Natatores, the complete list of 
which it is impossible to enumerate, the equally inhospitable dry, 
sandy portions of Egypt and Australia appear to be the favourite 
haunts of the Raptores. This thought was emphasized on my 
mind during the journey of the expedition despatched to Central 
Australia in 1894 by Mr. W. A. Horn. Frequently when we 
were travelling for days over dry sandy or stony plains, and scarcely 
seeing a bird of any species on either the ground or the stunted 
bushes, high overhead several species of Raptores might be seen 
soaring at ease, and evidently on the lookout for prey of some 
kind. The absence of many short-winged birds is accounted for 
by the scarcity of water and their inability to find suitable food. 
The distance from shelter may also have an important bearing on 
this point, but when we consider the immense power of flight, 



TH1C VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 59 



keenness of vision, and remarkable intelligence of the Raptores, 
I think a good many questions which may arise are easily settled. 
It is well known that many forms of reptiles and insects are 
found in the barren wastes described, and these must form an 
important item in the menu of many kinds of hawks. The lizards 
which burrow in the sand come out of their holes to bask and 
sleep in the sun, and then, when favourable opportunities occur, 
the hawks dash down about ioo yards away and skim along the 
ground with surprising velocity on their victims, which they 
seldom fail to secure. The fact that many birds unable to keep 
up a sustained flight often pause in their journey across these 
dry places from exhaustion and fall an easy prey to the hawks 
must also be borne in mind. Although some species may be 
said to live almost entirely on prey of their own killing, others 
are equally ready to act as scavangers, and feed on any carcass 
they can find. If these few introductory remarks are borne in 
mind they will, no doubt, add to the interest of the following 
field notes. The priority of place must, of course, be accorded 
to the 

Wedge-tailed Eagle (Aquila audax). — Much of the senti- 
mental nonsense of my youthful days was quickly dissipated 
when I had ample opportunity of witnessing their mode of life. 
It has often been stated that the eagle, like the lion, will only eat 
its own victims. The comparison may be a good one, but they 
are equally indifferent as to what kills the prey if they only get 
the opportunity of making a meal off it. On one occasion I 
witnessed a pair of these birds hunting a young wallaby from 
rock to rock on the side of a range, until at last it was secured 
and carried off. On mentioning this circumstance to one of my 
Central Australian friends, he informed me that they were trouble- 
some amongst the young goats, which are kept there in large 
numbers. On another occasion my attention was attracted to a 
dead cow by a number of these birds, which kept flying towards 
a certain spot and then suddenly flying up again. I approached 
cautiously, and from an elevated spot witnessed a curious sight. 
Two dingoes, no doubt attracted by the aroma, were making 
their breakfast off the carcass. The eagles, which were evidently 
desirous of having their share before the supply was exhausted, 
kept alighting near the spoil, when the dogs retired, but before 
the birds could satisfy their needs the dogs drove them off. 
This was repeated several times. At Heavitree Gap Mr. South 
directed me to where a dead bullock had been well treated with 
strychnine a few weeks before, and there the remains of several 
eagles and dingoes proved the potency of the drug. "When 
gorged with food, the Wedge-tailed Eagle will sit for hours 
perched on the highest branch he can find until partial digestion 
has taken place. Although slow in its movements, the Wedge- 



60 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



tailed Eagle has great power of wing, and can often be seen 
performing graceful evolutions at a great height for hours at a 
time. 

Whistling Eagle (Haliastur aphenurus). — This bird well 
merits its name, as whether on the wing or at rest it is seldom 
silent, but keeps up a peculiar whistling note. It is not at all 
choice in its food. At Stevenson Creek a number of crows 
gathered around our camp and picked up pieces of fat or mutton 
chop bones thrown to them. As soon as the crows secured the 
morsels several Whistling Eagles kept pouncing upon them and 
depriving them of their spoil. Several of their large stick nests 
were seen along the course of the rivers, and at every waterhole 
which we passed a pair or more of these birds were seen. 

Little Eagle (Aquila morphnoides). — At several points of 
our journey I thought I saw these birds, but as there was a 
slight doubt I did not record them. Mr. E. C. Cowle, who 
seemed very positive about the matter, and described the birds 
accurately, has since forwarded me one of their eggs, which was 
taken from a large stick nest in a desert oak tree, from which he 
flushed the bird. As soon as possible after the departure of the 
bird a native was sent up to the nest, and found one fresh egg, 
which Mr. Cowle kindly carried in his bosom for over ioo miles, 
as he had no other packing appliances, and here it is, a perfect 
specimen. 

Black-breasted Buzzard (Gypoictinia melanosternonj. — I had 
only two opportunities of identifying these birds. One was eating 
a fresh-killed wallaby when it was disturbed by a dingo. On 
another occasion several were seen flying near our camp and 
alighting on the ground amongst the porcupine grass. I should 
like very much to be able to test the accuracy of Gould's account 
of their method of disturbing the emu from its nest and then 
breaking and devouring its eggs. 

Australian Goshawk (Astxir approxbnmts), — These birds 
were several times found, especially where there was anypermanent 
water with vegetation around the margin. Such places not only 
afford shelter for a number of frogs, &c, on which the Goshawk 
delights to feed, but also prevent the young waterfowl seeing 
its approach until it swoops amongst them and seizes a victim 
from the surface of the water. Their stick nests are somewhat 
large in proportion to the birds. Mr. Cowle has sent me several 
clutches of their eggs, some of which are very rough, dull white, 
with occasional buff stains as though soiled with weak coffee. 

Collared Sparrowhawk (Accipiter cirrhocephalus ). — I had 
several opportunities of observing these birds. Like the Gos- 
hawks, they were always found near water. I found them similar 
in habit to those met with nearer home. In all that I have dis- 
sected, frogs, lizards, insects, and small birds formed their chief food. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 61 

They are extremely active and graceful in their flight, and when 
circling and turning in the sun appear very handsome. I am 
indebted to Mr. Jas. F. Field for a beautiful pair of their eggs, 
the ground colour of which is greenish white, with a few small 
chocolate spots. As this bird is so slight in its structure, and 
only about 8 ozs. in weight, I was somewhat surprised to hear 
recently that it can decapitate a wild duck at one blow, and has 
even been known to kill a Bustard (Choriotis Australis). 

Allied Kite (Milvus affinis). — These kites are certainly more 
indifferent to the presence of man than any hawks I have met 
with. Their well-known dark brown forms were always met with 
near stations and stockyards, where they feast on any scraps of 
meat after cattle are killed. At Henbury, whilst seated on a log 
busy skinning specimens, several kites kept darting down and 
carrying off scraps of.flesh I cast away. Although shooting was 
taking place close by, they did not appear in the least alarmed. 
At last my own gun was brought back, placed beside me, and in 
a few minutes the finest bird was shot from where I sat. As an 
instance of the boldness of the Allied Kite I may mention that a 
little child was sitting on the doorstep of a friend (Mrs. Clarke, 
Maryvale, Burdekin, Queensland), when a kite swooped down to 
seize a bone the child was enjoying, and in its effort to secure the 
spoil left marks on the child's face which she will carry to her 
grave. 

Square-tailed Kite ( Lophoictinia isura). — These birds appear 
to be more migratory than the preceding species. Although I 
thought I saw them several times, I was unsuccessful in securing 
specimens. Mr. Cowle, however, has set the matter at rest by 
sending me one egg of this species, which proved to be addled, 
and was taken from a nest containing a fully-fledged young one. 
The latter was killed, its wing sent down for identification, and 
the remainder formed an epicurean treat for the blackfellow who 
secured it. 

Letter-winged Kite (Elanus scriptus). — These beautiful 
birds were seen on several occasions searching for lizards or other 
acceptable food amongst the saltbush and porcupine grass. They 
generally seemed to hunt in pairs, and when the pangs of hunger 
were allayed they rested themselves on the highest perch they 
could find. The peculiar black V-shaped mark under their wings 
at once arrested attention. I am also indebted to Mr. Cowle for 
a clutch of their eggs. 

Black-shouldered Kite (Elanus axillaris). — These kites 
were also noticed, but beyond the difference in plumage nothing 
worthy of note was observed, their habits being similar to the 
foregoing. 

Grey Falcon (Falco hypoleucus). — Several attempts were 
made to secure these birds, but without success. They were 
always seen near the ranges, flying slowly along in search of prey 



62 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

(probably some of the small marsupials). These birds are of a 
slatey grey color, very strongly built, and furnished with extremely 
formidable talons and bill. They appear to be very fierce, 
and to behave exactly in the same manner inland as the Black- 
cheeked Falcon does near the coast. 

White-fronted Falcon ( Falco lunulatus). — This is not only 
one of our smallest and boldest, but also fiercest hawks. This is 
the bird which I find is generally alluded to as the sparrowhawk. 
Strongly built, and furnished with true falcon bill, legs, and talons, 
I have several times seen them kill and carry off birds heavier 
than themselves. When hungry they are not at all particular 
whether it is a finch or a pigeon. Owing to its rapid flight it 
seems to be able to overtake any other bird on the wing. They 
were found in many places, but especially at rock pools and 
waterholes where no doubt food was most plentiful. At one pool 
a pair dashed into a flock of finches, seized a bird each, flew 
away, and in five minutes returned, appearing as if by magic, 
and repeated the operation. They are found throughout Aus- 
tralia, and I have shot them in many places near Melbourne. 

Western Brown Hawk ( Hieracidea berigora). — These birds 
were found throughout the trip, and although on several occasions 
in the spinifex country we could not see a single bird, members 
of our party fired the grass, which burned readily ; small mar- 
supials, lizards, and mice were disturbed by the flames, and a 
dense smoke arose. In a few minutes these hawks appeared in 
numbers, and dashed through the smoke, seizing their prey as 
they darted from one tussock to another. These birds are very 
careless in their nidification, and seldom build a new nest if an 
old one can be found. Their eggs are too well known to require 
description. The plumage of these birds varies considerably with 
age, so much so that some authorities confuse the two species of 
Hieracidea, but I am of the same opinion as Mr. North and 
others, which is that there are two distinct species. 

Nankeen Kestrel ( Tinmmculus cenchroides). — These pretty 
little birds were found wherever timber or scrub was seen, but 
were most numerous near Hermannsburg and Alice Springs. 
Whether perched on some high stump or branch, or balancing 
themselves in the air, watching some unwary lizard, their 
behaviour was precisely the same as that of their friends nearer 
home. Mr. Cowle has sent me a number of their eggs, which 
show considerable variation in colour. 

Boobook Owl (Ninox boobook). — These well-known owls are 
most plentiful along the Finke River, but wherever large timber 
was found they were numerous. At one point of the trip a fine 
specimen was secured before sunset, as it was busy seeking its 
prey. Another was shot at midday in a mulga scrub. 

Delicate Owl (Strix delicatula). — Although I did not see or 
obtain a specimen of this bird, at one point in the ranges the 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 






-tt*,' 'V 



»v* * ' .* 






Kv-." 



3 



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H- 





6 



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•>»-_ 

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EGGS FROM NORTH QUEENSLAND. 



Negative by D. Le souef. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 63 



grass was fired, and the smoke disturbed several of them, which 
Dr. Stirling identified. I found a few of their feathers, and 
Messrs. Field and Ross have since forwarded their eggs. 



EGGS FROM NORTH QUEENSLAND. 

The accompanying plate represents some eggs from the Bloom- 
field River district, Northern Queensland, now in the collection 
of Mr. D. Le Souef, and which have recently been described by 
him. The Crescent-marked Oriole and the Yellow-bellied Fly- 
catcher were described before the Royal Society of Victoria in 
March, 1894, while the descriptions of the others appeared in 
the Ibis for July, 1896. As they do not appear to have yet been 
figured, they are now reproduced from a photograph by Mr. Le 
Souef, as a guide to collectors. 

The species represented are as follow : — 

1. — Papuan Podargus, Podargus Papuensis, Quoy and Gaim. 

2. — White-bellied Owlet Nightjar, JZgotheles leucogaster, Gld. 

3. — Crescent-marked Oriole, Mimeta flavo-cincta, Vig. and 
Horsf. 

4. — Swainson's Graucalus, Graucalus Swainsoni, Gld. 

5. — Yellow-bellied Flycatcher, Micrceca jiavigaster, Gld. 

6. — Striated Sittella, tiittella striata, Gld. 

7. — Lunated Thickhead, Pachycephala jaleata, Gld. 

8. — Obscure Honeyeater, Myzomela obscura, Gld. 



AN OOLOGISTS' REUNION. 

At the invitation of Mr. A. J. Campbell, about twenty gentlemen 
interested in oology, including several members of the Field 
Naturalists' Club, met at Britannia House, South Yarra, on 
Saturday evening, 15th August, 1896. The decorations of the 
room and tables were indicative of the nature of the gathering, 
for a large moss-made nest of the Mountain Thrush, with eggs, 
fresh from the scrub, occupied a prominent place, while photo- 
graphs of bird scenes, together with the blooms of golden acacias, 
pink and white epacris, clematis, and other native flowers, pro- 
duced a very pleasing effect. 

After dinner, the chairman, Mr. D. M'Alpine, Vegetable Patho- 
logist to the Department of Agriculture, briefly referred to the 
success of Mr. Campbell's efforts in working out the oology of 
many Australian birds, and hoped that his collection of eggs, 
which now contained over 500 species, would one day become 
national property. Mr. Campbell then contributed a paper 
giving a brief sketch of the progress of Australian oological 
science, and by way of illustration read that portion of the MS. 
of his intended work, " Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds," 
which described the habits, &c, of the Bell Bird of Gippsland. 



64 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

A pleasant half-hour was then devoted to some optical lantern 
views shown by Mr. D. Le Souef, depicting various birds and 
nests observed by Mr. Campbell on his numerous excursions. 

The meeting broke up with many expressions of gratification 
at the pleasant and profitable evening spent, and hopes for future 
gatherings of a similar nature. 



RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

A Concise Handbook of British Birds. By H. K. Swann, 
editor of the Ornithologist, Fc. 8vo, cloth, 3s. 6d. 

We have received from the publishers, John Wheldon and Co., 
natural history booksellers, London, a copy of this work, which 
well earns its title. In its 208 pages it contains references to 
381 species of British birds, comprised under 206 genera, which 
are arranged according to the list of the British Ornithological 
Union (1883), commencing with Turdus (Thrushes), and ending 
with Fratercula (Puffins). Notwithstanding the compactness and 
small size of the volume, a vast amount of information respecting 
each bird is given, comprising habitat, brief description of male 
and female, size, breeding place, description of eggs, and, with 
rare birds, notes of various occurrences. Altogether the work 
seems so useful as a companion in the field that one wishes such 
a volume existed for Victorian birds. 



A List of the Insectivorous Birds of New South Wales. 
By A. J. North, C.M.Z.S., Ornithologist of the Australian 
Museum, Sydney. Part I. Sydney : Government Printer. 

In the short introduction to the list the author expresses his 
intention of dividing the birds into three groups — 1st. Those 
exclusively insectivorous, and, unless otherwise stated, beneficial ; 
2nd. Those partially insectivorous, also beneficial ; 3rd. Those 
both insectivorous and frugivorous — more or less harmful. 

The part under notice deals with a portion, 63 species, of 
the first group, from the Owlet Nightjar to the White-lored 
Robin, and contains ten plates, in which nineteen birds are 
figured, fifteen of which are in colours, thus forming a most useful 
guide to fruit-growers and others. In passing it may be remarked 
that our friend the Magpie, Gymnorrhina tibicen, is noted as 
" one of the most useful of all Australian birds to the pastoralist 
and agriculturist." 

References to Gould, or to the author's larger work, " Nests 
and Eggs of Australian Birds," are given for each species, also 
the vernacular and local rames, while particulars of its mode of life, 
nesting, and often a brief description of the eggs, should prevent 
any needless destruction of such useful members of the animal 
kingdom. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 65 



A CATALOGUE OF VICTORIAN HETEROCERA. 

By Oswald B. Lower, F.E.S. 

Part XXL 

EULECHRIA. Meyr. 

723. E. criseola, Zeller (Cryptolechia griseola, Zeller, Linn., 
Ent., x., 151 ; Eulechria griseola, Meyr., Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N.S.W., 512, 1882). 

*724. E. cremnodes, Meyr. (loc. cit., 514, 1882). 
Gisborne. 

725. E. melesella, Newman (Depressaria melesella, Newman, 
Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond., vol. iii., N.S., 291 ; Eulechria 
melesella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 516, 1882). 

Gisborne, Melbourne. 

*726. E. episema, Meyr. (loc. cit., 517, 1882). 

Gisborne, Frankston, Melbourne. 

*727- E. CONV1CTELLA, Walk. (Depressaria convictella, Walk., 
B. M. Cat., 566 ; Eulechria convictella, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 518, 1882). 

Melbourne, Lismore. 

728. E. exanimis, Meyr. (loc. cit., 519, 1882). 
Melbourne. 

729. E. pantelella, Meyr. (loc cit., 520, 1882). 
Melbourne (Spencer-street Railway Station, at light). 

*730. E. puellaris, Meyr. (loc. cit., 522, 1882). 

731. E. achalinella, Meyr. (loc cit., 523, 1882). 
Gisborne, Melbourne, &c. 

732. E. triferella, Walk. ((Ecophora triferella, Walk., B. M. 

Cat., 684 ; Eulechria triferella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. 
Soc, N.S.W., 523, 1882). 

Melbourne, Mt. Macedon. 

-733. E. lrachypepla, Meyr. (loc. cit., 524, 1882). 

Fernshaw ( ? Ararat). 

*734. E. transversella, Walk. (Cryptolechia transverse/la, 
Walk., B. M. Cat., 763 ; Eulechria transverse//, 1, 
Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 527, 1882). 

Melbourne. 



66 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



*735- E. variegata, Meyr. (loc. cit., 528, 1882). 
Gisborne, Sale. 

736. E. pcecilella, Meyr. (lor. cit., 531, 1882). 
Melbourne (South). 

737. E. haprophanes, Meyr. (loc. cit., 532, 1882). 
Melbourne. 

738. E. lividella, Meyr. (loc. cit., 533, 1882). 
Mount Macedon. 

*739- E. philotherma, Meyr. (loc. cit., 534, 1882). 

Gisborne. 
*74o. E. amaura, Meyr. (loc cit., 538, 1882). 

Melbourne. 

741. E. adoxella, Meyr. (loc cit., 540, 1882). 
Melbourne. 

742. E. xylopterella, Walk. (Gelechia xylopterella, Walk., 

B. M. Cat., 650; Eulechria xylopterella, Meyr., 
Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 543, 1882). 

Gisborne, Melbourne, Oakleigh. 

*743- E. siccella, Walk. (Gelechria siccella, Walk., B. M. Cat., 
643 ; Eulechria siccella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W., 544, 1882). 

Sale, Springvale. 

*744- E. tanyscia, Meyr. (loc cit., 322, 1883). 

Dandenong Ranges. 

745. E. camel/ea, Meyr. (loc. cit., 943, 1887). 
Beechworth, Bairnsdale. 

746. E. eriphila, Meyr. (loc. cit., 946, 18S7). 
Without any given locality. 

747. E. malacoptera, Meyr. (loc cit., 948, 1887) 
Gisborne, Melbourne, &c. 

*748. E. eocrossa, Meyr. (loc cit., 949, 1887). 
Melbourne, Horsham (at light). 

749. E. graphica, Meyr. (loc cit., 951, 1887). 
Warragul. 

750. E. xanthustephana, Meyr. (loc. cit., 954, 1887). 
Gisborne, Melbourne. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 67 

751. E. archepeda, Meyr. (loc. cit., 960, 1887). 

*752. E. athletis, Meyr. {loc. cit., 961, 1887). 
Melbourne. 

*753. E. adelphodes, Lower (Tr. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. 1883). 

754. E. dryinodes, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1,565, 

1888). 

Melbourne. 

755. E. alopecistis, Meyr. {loc cit., 1,565, 1888). 
Melbourne. 

LEISTARCHA. Meyr. 

*756. L. scitissimella, Walk. {Eulechria scitissimella, Walk., 
B. M. Cat., 807 ; Leistarcha iobola, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 327, 1883). 

Gisborne, Albert Park. 

CENOCHROA. Meyr. 

*757. CE. lactella, Walk. {Gelechia lactella, B. M. Cat., 648 ; 
(Enochroa lactella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
328, 1883). 

Melbourne. 

*758. CE. endochlora, Meyr. {loc. cit., 329, 1883). 
Warragul. 

*759. CE. iobaphes, Meyr. {loc. cit., 330, 1883). 

Melbourne (Spencer-street Railway Station, at light). 

760. CE. dinosema, Meyr. {loc. cit., 1,575, 1885). 

761. QE. thermochroa, Lower (Tr. Roy. Soc, 1896). 
Gisborne. 

I have since satisfied myself that this species is referable to 
Eulechria. 

MACHETIS. Meyr. 
PLACOCOSMA. Meyr. 

PETALANTHES. Meyr. 

762. P. hexastera, Meyr. {loc. cit., 336, 1883). 



68 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



LINOSTICHA. Meyr. 

^763. L. scrythropa, Meyr. (loe. cit., 339, 1883). 
Horsham (at light). 

7C4. L. DicHROA, Lower (Tr. Roy. Soc. S.A.) 

765. L. anadesma, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1,579, 1885). 
Sale. 

*y66. L. mechanica, Meyr. (foe. cit., 1,581, 1885). 
Stawell. 

"^767. L. suppletella, Walk. (Gelechia suppletella, Walk., 645 ; 
Linosticha suppletella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
1,585, 1885). 
Gishorne. 

TRA CH YNTIS. M ey r . 

PHRICONYMA. Meyr. 

LOCHEUT1S. Meyr. 

IOPTERA. Meyr. 

*768. I. aristogona, Meyr. {loo. cit., 345, 1883). 

Gisborne. 
769. I. demica, Meyr. (for. cit., 1,589, 1885). 

Gisborne, Melbourne. 

MA CR ON EM A TA. Meyr. 
PHLCKOPOLA. Meyr. 

*77o. P. asboloea, Meyr. (lor. cit, 349, 1883). 

Warragul. 
*77 1. P. semocausta, Meyr. (for. cit, 350, 1883). 

Melbourne. 

772. P. hyperarcha, Meyr. (loc. cit, 1,591, 1885). 
Warragul, Melbourne, 

*773. P. psephophora, Meyr. (lor. cit, 354, 1883). 
Melbourne. 

774. P. turbatelea, Walk. (Cryptolechia turbatella, Walk., 
B. M. Cat., 765 ; Phlceopola turbatella, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 353, 1883). 

Fernshaw, Melbourne, Windsor, &c. 




Victorian tyatxxvali&t. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 6. SEPTEMBER, 1896. No. 154. 

(PUBLISHED OCTOBER 8, 1896.) 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, 14th September, 1896. The 
president, Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A., occupied the chair, 
and some 60 members and visitors were present. 

REPORTS.. 

The hon. librarian reported the receipt of the following dona- 
tions to the library : — Natural Science, vols, ii., iii., iv., v., and vi., 
from Mr. F. G. A. Barnard ; " Report of Horn Exploring 
Expedition," parts 2 and 3, from Mr. W. A. Horn ; " Proceedings 
Linnean Society of New South Wales (second series), vol x., part 
4, and 1896, part 1 (with Supplement), from Society; "Trans- 
actions Royal Society of South Australia," vol. xvi., part 3, from 
Society; "Transactions Royal Society of Tasmania," 1894-5, 
from Society; "Transactions of New Zealand Institute," 1895, from 
Institute; "Proceedings Australasian Association for Advance- 
ment of Science," Brisbane meeting, 1895, from the Association ; 
" Annual Report of Trustees, Australian Museum, Sydney," 1895, 
from Trustees ; "Botany Bulletin, Queensland," No. 13, from the 
Government Botanist, Brisbane ; " Proceedings Nova Scotian 
Institute of Science," vol. i. (second series), part 4, from the 
Institute ; " Proceedings Boston Society of Natural History," 
vol. xxvi., part 4, from Society; and "Proceedings Academy of 
Natural Sciences, Philadelphia,'' 1895, part 2, from Academy. 

The hon. secretary reported that a meeting for practical work 
was held on Monday evening, 24th August, when Mr. T. S. Hall, 
M.A., gave a demonstration on the classification and grouping of 
rocks, with the identification of some of the commoner kinds. 
There was a good attendance of members, and a most profitable 
evening was spent, a large number of typical specimens being 
handed round for study. 

A report of the excursion to Clayton on Saturday, 22nd 
August, was read by the leader, Mr. C. French, juu. An enjoy- 
able afternoon was spent, and among the plants noticed may be 
mentioned Acacia oxycedrus, Styphelia eMiptica, Drosera binata, 
Boronia polygalifolia, Corysanthes ungaiculata, Pterostylis pedun- 
culata, and Ophioglossum vulgatum. Some members devoted 
their attention to pond life, when, amongst other objects, an 
interesting alga, probably belonging to the family Chroococcus, 
was noted. 



f.Ql 



70 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

A report of the excursion to Cheltenham on Saturday, 5th 
September, was furnished by the leader, Mr. C. French, F.L.S., 
when, accompanied by a party of members of the University 
.Science Club, an extended exploration of the heath-ground 
towards Cheltenham was made. Spring flowers were in abundance, 
and a number of plants of Phylloglossum Drummondi were 
collected. A fine patch of the orchid Lyperanthus nigricans, in 
flower, was found, being some three weeks earlier than usually 
noted. During the afternoon a halt was called and an examina- 
tion made of the specimens collected, the names, &c, being 
furnished by the leader. 

ELECTION OF MEMBER. 

On a ballot being taken, Mr. J. Paul was duly elected a member 
of the Club. 

PAPERS READ. 

i. By Mr. A. E. Kitson, entitled " Geological Notes on the 
Toombullup Goldfield and Adjacent Country." 

The author described the main characteristics of the locality, 
which is situated about the centre of the county of Delatite, and 
the methods used in the gold mining. The origin of the gold 
was somewhat obscure, and the district required further ex- 
ploration before it could be determined whether it originally 
occurred in a basaltic or granitic formation. He noted the 
occurrence of gem-stones, such as sapphires, zircons (hyacinths), 
Oriental emeralds, and topazes, some of which were large enough 
to be of commercial value. 

During the discussion which ensued Baron von Mueller spoke 
of his experiences when collecting botanical specimens in the 
district some forty years previously. Messrs. G. Coghill, T. S. 
Hall, M.A., H. R. Hogg, M.A., H. T. Tisdall, and G. B. 
Pritchard also spoke. 

2. By Mr. J. H. Wright (communicated by Mr. T. S. Hall, 
M.A.), entitled " Notes on the Mode of Wood Petrifaction." 

The paper referred to a specimen of fossil wood found in a 
block of ferruginous quartzite at Darlimurla, South Gippsland. 
On examination under the microscope it was found to consist of 
silicious casts of the tracheides of a woody tissue. The author 
then gave some account of how this condition may have been 
produced. 

3. By Lieutenant-Colonel Legge, F.L.S. (hon. member), 
entitled " Notes on a Sericornis from Kent Group." 

The author described a Sericornis collected by the Field 
Naturalists' Club expedition to the Kent Group, which, having 
certain differences from Sericornis frontalis, might be considered 
as a sub-species, and proposed for it the name S. gularis. 

Some discussion ensued, which opened up the question of the 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 71 



migration of birds between Tasmania and the mainland. Pro- 
fessor Baldwin Spencer, M.A., and Messrs. D. Le Souef and H. 
P. C. Ashworth mentioned their observations on the different 
islands in Bass Strait, which went to show that little, if any, 
migration takes place. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

i. By Mr. W. H. F. Hill.—" Notes on an Entomogenous 
Fungus." The writer referred to the life-history of a small 
parasitic fungus of the type of Enipusa muscce, possibly of 
considerable economic value, since it attacks the larvae of Agrotis 
infusa, A. breviuscula, and several allied species, which are very 
destructive to cereal crops. 

2. By Mr. H. T. Tisdall, F.L.S. — Remarks on a supposed new 
species of fungus belonging to the Myxomycetes, collected by 
Mr. C. French, F.L.S., at Narre Warren. Drawings by the writer 
were shown in illustration of the paper. 

EXHIBITION OF SPECIMENS. 

The following were the principal exhibits of the evening : — By 
Mr. G. Coghill — 8 species of orchids in flower from Tunstall. 
By Mr. C. French, F.L.S. — Rare butterflies and Moths : Attacus 
Edwardsii (male and female) and Nyctapas albocincta from 
Assam ; Mymes Guerini (varieties), Arhopala eupolis, Pseudo- 
dipsas Digglesi, Lyccenesthes Tumeri, and Pieris scyllara (var. 
perimale) from North Queensland. By C. French, jun. — Rare 
Victorian orchids : Acianthus caudatus and Pterostylis cucullata 
(var. alpina) from Fernshawe ; Caladenia coerulea from Ander- 
son's Creek ; also Pterostylis curta, with two flowers, collected by 
Mr. Wauer at Yarra Glen. By Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A.— Silicious 
casts of pitted vessels of a plant under microscope, in illustration 
of paper by Mr. J. H. Wright. By Mr. A. E. Kitson. — 35 
geological specimens, in illustration of paper. By Mr. D. Le 
Souef. — Lizard, Phyllurus platurus, from Queensland. By Baron 
von Mueller. — Galium murale, as an introduced plant from South 
Europe ; Cryptandra bifida, new for Victoria, collected at the 
Wimmera by Mr. F. Reader ; Cyrtostylis reniformis, with green 
flowers, collected by Mr. J. Paul at Grantville; also the following 
plants as new for extra tropic Western Australia : — Bassia divari- 
cata, from near Coolgardie, collected by Mr. F. Wehl ; Perotis 
vara, traced by Mr. J. Cusack towards Shark's Bay, where he 
also collected Lythrum hyssopifolia and Vallisneria spiralis. By 
Mr. J. Paul.— Orchids from Grantville. By Mr. H. T. Tisdall, 
F.L.S. — Drawings of a supposed new fungus belonging to 
Myxomycetes, collected at Narre Warren by Mr. C. French, 
F.L.S. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



72 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

COLLECTING IN RIVERINA DURING FULL FLOOD.* 
By J. Garriel. 
(Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, \Zth July, 1896.,) 
On 5th September, 1894, my friend Mr. A. J. Campbell and 
myself found ourselves at Koondrook, prepared to start on a 
collecting trip and brave the flooded waters of the River Murray. 
To those who have not seen this fine stream of water, a passing 
description of its annual rise and fall may be acceptable. 
During the latter part of summer and through the winter the 
river flows at its ordinary low level, and the traffic is at a com- 
parative standstill. But as the warm spring approaches, the 
snow at its sources rapidly melts, and soon the river assumes a 
different appearance. The water rapidly rising, enables vessels to 
depart to their many destinations, in some instances many 
hundred miles distant from Echuca, the usual starting place. 

About October and November the river overflows its banks in 
places — these overflows go to form lagoons. Some of these 
lagoons extend for many miles in various directions, and about 
the end of spring their surfaces are carpeted with the exquisite 
little Water Lily, Limnanthemum crenatum, whose rich golden 
flowers, combined with those of other aquatic plants, form some 
of Nature's prettiest pictures. Innumerable birds, of many 
species, flock here to breed — notably the waders and swimmers. 

Some few years ago, with another field naturalist, I spent a 
glorious fortnight in hunting around and through some of these 
fine sheets of water, and met with encouraging success. We 
were supplied with a " shakedown" by our mutual friend, Mr. 
G. H. Morton, who has a large selection at Benjeroop, and 
whose house is built on the river bank. During our stay our 
photographic artist was happy in obtaining several interesting 
typical pictures, notably — A Murray Steamer with Barge of 
Wool in Tow ; Cattle at Dawn ; Murray Lobsters — this picture 
was taken under considerable difficulty, as the "creatures" 
would not remain still ; but two hours' patience won the day, or 
rather the picture. We took advantage of the harvest season, 
which gave us two more — Harvesting, and Some of Morton's 
Children. The river, of course, is teeming with fish, and one 
afternoon we were successful in obtaining a fine haul. 

The following pictures were taken during our wading trips : — 
Bitterns, Botaurus poicilopterus ; Bittern's Nest ; Semipalmated 
Goose, Anseras melaleuca ; Nest of Goose; Ibis, white, 
Threskiomis strictipennis ; Ibis Rookery ; Ibis Nest. All these 
scenes tend to make things pleasant, but occasionally the 
annual rise of the Murray is considerably augmented by con- 

* The paper was illustrated with a series of forty-seven excellent lantern 
slides from photographs taken by Mr. A. J. Campbell. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 73 

tinuous heavy rains at the mountain sources of the river and its 
tributaries, and we have floods of more or less magnitude. 

During this particular trip the river, a little time before our visit, 
had overflowed its banks between Tocumwall and Lake Moira, 
sending a great sheet of water down the Edwards, with its net- 
work of Riverina billabongs. The Murray continued to rise, 
and on our arrival at Koondrook was swirling past in high flood. 

While staying over-night at the homely Coffee Palace of Mr. 
B. Akers we made anxious inquiries as to the condition of the 
country beyond, through which we had to travel, and were 
informed that all rivers, creeks, billabongs, &c, were overflowing. 
A traveller gave us a lively description of his experience while 
crossing the Wymool. His horse, he says, " turned turtle," 
broke the saddle girth, and he had to swim down stream after 
the saddle, and so on. As this was one of the streams that we 
had to cross, my companion and I exchanged glances and 
wondered. 

By appointment we met Messrs. Neil and Roderick Macauley 
at Koondrook, and found that they had had to abandon their 
buggy at the Wakool River and swim the four horses over the 
Wymool Creek. The horses they brought to Barham, opposite 
Koondrook, riding bareback a distance of n miles. 

Early next morning we crossed the Murray with our luggage 
and collecting material, and our friends soon drove up with a 
buggy which had been kindly placed at our disposal by another 
friend. We were not long in making a start, and were fortunate 
in having the companionship of Mr. J. W. Chanter, who is Stock 
Inspector for the Barham district, and who thoughtfully arranged 
an official visit in the direction we purposed taking so as to pilot 
us through the shallowest places. Splendid fun was soon the 
order of the day — flood, flood, water, water, flop, flop — occurring, 
however, so frequently that we soon became accustomed to it. 
Our course is zig-zag, ever heading in a northerly direction. 
The box timber is soon passed, and we skirt billabongs and ford 
lagoons till we get into red-gum country, when we begin to feel 
a little anxious. The bridge at Eagle Creek is soon crossed, but 
its approaches are flooded. About four miles on we cross Barber's 
Creek with a certain amount of delightful dread. We tilt our 
legs into the air with graceful attitude so as not to get them wet, 
but find the water only reaches the floor of the buggy. A little 
further on we were just in time to catch a pretty scene — viz., a 
small flock of sheep crossing the flood for high ground. Cow 
Creek now came in sight, where we narrowly escaped a capsize. 
The two horses suddenly flopped into a hollow, while our buggy 
took an unpleasant cant, and we were nearly out ; however, wet 
ankles is the only result. We are now driving on a dry pine 
ridge, and we pull up at a selector's house. The good wife 
informs us that her husband is waiting at the Wymool to cross us 



74 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

in his boat. This was one of the many kind provisions which 
the Macauleys had made for our comfort en route. After jump- 
ing a wire fence or two with our buggy we arrived at the dreaded 
Wymool, where we found the selector and his son with boat 
all ready for us. But a large fire suggested billy tea, which was 
soon got ready. After lunch we prepared for a famous swim. 
This was certainly a new experience to us field naturalists. Our 
luggage was transferred to the boat, which was somewhat leaky, but 
to us was far more comfortable inside than out. Our friends the 
Macauleys then swam the four horses across, holding on by their 
tails, while we braved the flood in the boat. The borrowed 
buggy is left well on the bank, according to instructions received 
from the owner, who called for it some four months afterwards. 
Before leaving we bid good-bye to Mr. Chanter, our kind pilot. 

The Wymool Creek and Wakool River run parallel about here, 
and in a flood like this the streams coalesce and sweep by the 
regimental gum trees about half a mile broad. Our friends with 
the horses are soon out of sight, while we in the boat are pro- 
pelled across the stream by a contrivance called a revolving 
paddle, worked by a crank (an invention of the selector's). 

We found the Macauleys wailing for us with a spanking four- 
horse team, and after thanking the selector, who was such a friend 
in need, we merrily proceeded on our way. But for a little time, 
however, for, after skirting Callaghan Plain, we see ahead of us a 
broad sheet of water, and are soon flop, flopping through the 
backwater of the Wakool. This water-travelling, with occasional 
patches of dry ground, lasts till late in the afternoon. The 
monotony is relieved at times by the appearance of game, &c. 
We flush ducks and teal and the beautiful Wood Duck at frequent 
intervals, and occasionally small flocks of both species of ibis 
were passed ; parrots also of several kinds, while cockatoos, both 
white and rose, are seen grubbing in the open. Towards evening 
we enter upon a large plain, and kangaroos, both red and grey 
species, together with occasional emus, are now frequently passed. 
Some of these animals stopped to admire our four-horse team, as 
well they might, for, with all the travelling, our horses were still 
quite fresh. Darkness was our next experience, and we are 
benighted in the overflow of the Neimur Creek, but our driver 
knew his way, and we successfully crossed the bridge, shortly 
afterwards turning into Neimur Park, to be hospitably entertained 
for the night by the owner, Mrs. Perrignon, and her two daughters. 
Next morning we leave our hospitable friends, and are soon 
heading on our journey. This means, of course, more flood 
water at frequent intervals. 

At seven miles we break on to a pine ridge, and arrive at 
Bannockburn — our destination — where we got a hearty Scotch 
welcome from the Macauley family. Dinner over we lost no 
time in investigating a Black Duck's nest in a hollow stump in the 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 75 

Ooroonong Creek, which flows past the house. We found three 
eggs ; these, being handy, we left, so that we could check the 
period of laying the balance of eggs. But some crows were on 
the watch too, and on our next visit we found that they also 
appreciated ducks' eggs. To get to this stump a boat was used, 
which we named the '' Pride of the Ooroonong ; " although rather 
leaky, we found it very useful at times. 

A pine ridge opposite next attracted our attention, where we 
found some of our feathered friends — notably the Red-capped 
Robin (Petrceca Goodenovii) and a rare Gerygone (Gerygone culi- 
civora). This pretty bird we met frequently afterwards, but we 
failed to find any nests. These birds are a Western Australian 
species, but have been found in Victoria, and it was interesting 
to find them here also. 

The pine ridge near the house was hunted the next day, with no 
result. In the afternoon, while strolling along the creek bank, 
a Maned Goose was flushed out of a hollow tree, and the next 
day we took our first clutch of twelve eggs. To obtain this 
clutch was at first a puzzle, but one of our friends was equal to 
the occasion. 

Next morning we had a long tramp, but again with poor 
results. While returning we noticed an Australian Shoveller, 
Spatula rhynchotis. These birds are very shy, and this one 
was seen sneaking from the creek to the grass crop. One of our 
friends, at our request, paid a visit to the spot about ten days 
after we left, and found a clutch of nine eggs, and not very far off 
a second clutch with eight eggs. These birds are not so dainty 
and trim with their nests as the Black Duck and Teal. Both of 
these nests, as usual, were found abominably messy and unpleasant. 
In the afternoon we were driven to Moulamein, eleven miles 
distant, where we arrived soon after dark. Our journey, as 
usual, was varied by many water experiences, but we were now 
getting used to these, noticing only the waterfowl and mosquitos ; 
the latter were always present, and the former thickly sprinkled 
the overflows. We passed the night at this, one of the oldest 
towns in New South Wales. In dance and song we spend a 
pleasant night, and retire to bed early — in the morning. 

Next day on our return journey we found a Teal's nest, prettily 
placed in a hollow spout of an overhanging dead tree. Standing 
upon the seat of the buggy, we counted eleven creamy-coloured 
eggs, which we were cruel enough to take. These eggs, as usual, 
were beautifully encircled with elastic down. This down we 
carried home with us, and two hours after being taken it was 
found to be still quite warm. I gather from this that the eggs 
never get cold during the temporary absence of the sitting bird. 

At Bygannti Creek we have to cross a peculiar structure which 
is honoured by the name of a bridge. The horses are first un- 
yoked and led over, and the buggy is then hauled over by us 



76 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



afterwards. On a subsequent occasion Billy Briggs, one of the 
horses, dropped over the side with all his harness on, but landing 
in the mud beneath was not hurt. 

On our homeward journey we passed a large cotton-bush plain, 
where we saw the beautiful little White-winged Wren, Malurus 
leucopterus. Later on during our stay we spent the best part of 
a day in hunting this plain, but our white-winged friends had 
apparently just paired off, and we only succeeded in finding un- 
finished nests, several of which were destroyed, apparently by 
crows. We, however, were fortunate in finding a fine clutch of 
Black Duck's eggs, quite away from water. This clutch was 
remarkable as being the only one found on the ground during our 
trip, all others being found in hollow trees. We found many 
nests without hunting very keenly, but as we had representatives 
already in our cabinets we took very few home with us. The 
ducks, Teal, Wood Duck, and swan we found with few exceptions 
scattered about in pairs, every splash or overflow having its 
representatives. The beautiful Wood Duck — probably called a 
duck because it is a goose — frequently attracted our attention, 
the gorgeous plumage of the male bird shining out with re- 
splendent colours. We found them more sociably inclined than 
the ducks (perhaps because they are not so good to eat), as we 
frequently got very close and viewed them at our leisure. 

Hearing from a neighbour, Mr. Jackson, of a swan's nest with 
eggs, we one day went to search it out, and after considerable 
wading, assisted by two horses and a buggy, we found it ingeniously 
placed on the leafy part of a fallen gum bough. The top of the 
nest was about six or eight inches above the water surface. On 
our approach the birds, true to their shy nature, made off. We 
took an excellent photograph of the nest, our artist standing in 
the water to do so ; but this is only one of the luxuries of an 
enthusiastic naturalist whose ardour never damps. The next 
day a second picture was taken, but on this occasion we were 
assisted by the boat. On the way back to the homestead we 
flushed a Teal off its nest, which contained twelve eggs. We also 
flushed a Tiger Snake swimming in the water, and after bidding 
him good morning with one of the propelling poles, we left him 
on a stump to dry for the crows. 

The snakes are socially inclined about here, frequently coming 
into the houses. One night I heard a noise in our bedroom 
which I attributed to a mouse, but was assured next morning it 
was a snake, as they were not troubled with mice. This is another 
naturalists' luxury. 

During our stay we hunted very keenly for nests of the Spotted 
Bower Bird, Chlamydodera macidata, but with no success. We 
found afterwards we were far too early, the two eggs exhibited 
to-night being found in November afterwards. We were fortunate 
in finding six of their bowers in full working order. As usual, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 






it 






. 



f « 



et**. 



\ 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 77 

they were adorned with a liberal supply of bones, principally the 
knuckles, ribs, and vertebras of sheep, broken glass, quondong 
stones, and other seeds ; in one bower a piece of mirrored glass 
was found. All the bowers were sheltered under Bursaria bushes, 
the prickly thorns of which, united with the constant attentions of 
the mosquitos, made it very difficult to take a picture. On one of 
the pine ridges, about two miles from the homestead, we found 
two nests of the Red-capped Robin ; as usual, these were very 
cunningly hidden, but as the clutches were not completed we 
left them for a few days. On the journey to take these eggs, a 
few days afterwards, we took a short cut across the Ooroonong 
backwater, and as the water rose over the seats of the buggy, 
ccnsequently we got a wetting. Coming back by another track 
made matters no better, the horses having to swim, and neces- 
sitating a full change of clothing for us when we got to the 
homestead. In all these struggles through the water our horses 
seemed to take it as a matter of course, going in without hesitation 
anywhere when driven. On one occasion two of the Macauley 
Brothers, for our edification, gave us an illustration of how they 
cross a stream when out riding. One of the brothers clung to 
his horse's mane, while the other held on to his horse's tail. Care 
must be taken to get on to the horses' backs immediately they 
touch ground. The clothing, being tied in a tight bundle, is 
held by one hand overhead. They laugh at the idea of riding 
across on the horse, as it is not fair to the animal, and is simply 
dangerous. 

We next went for a two days' trip to Mallan, about twenty 
miles westward from our stopping place, on the Swan Hill — 
Moulamein route. We were kindly received by Messrs. Neil 
Macaulay and S. Metcalf at their respective homes, Mr. Metcalf 
taking us to a mallee fringe which was a perfect aviary of birds. 
But we were far too early for their nesting season. In this 
mallee fringe we found other bowers of the Spotted Bower 
Bird. 

On our way back to Bannockburn we took another route, 
passing through a Polygonum (Muehlenbeckia Muelleri) swamp 
and some box country. These Box trees {Eucalyptus melliodora) 
have all been rung, and have a weird appearance. The ringing 
is done so as to allow the grass underneath to grow more freely. 
In the swamp we flushed a Teal off its nest in a snug hollow 
tree, and later on took from it a clutch of eight beautiful eggs. 
The swamp is a fine breeding-place for mosquitos, and a lively 
time we had in going through. 

On the following day we paid a visit to a large swamp over the 
Ooroonong Creek, in hopes of finding a Native Companion's 
nest ; but, although we heard the birds trumping, we were 
unsuccessful. While punting our way back we found a nest of 
the Pied Grallina, Grallina picata, containing four pretty eggs. 



?8 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

In this locality, and on the Murray banks, the eggs of these 
birds are very different to those found nearer Melbourne, being 
of a rich fleshy tint, like those of the Honey-eaters. One day 
we drove through the " lignum " swamp to the box country, and 
succeeded in finding a Buzzard's nest, but to our disgust it 
contained young only. On returning we chased a flock of 
twenty-eight Emus, who disdainfully allowed us to approach near 
to them, and then showed us how they could run. The time for 
our homeward journey was now approaching. We see by the 
newspapers that the Murray is still rising, and are told that 
returning vid Koondrook is impracticable, and that the Wymool 
would not be the only swim on the route. So there is nothing 
for it but to return vid Deniliquin. About fifty-three miles on the 
way to Deniliquin is Dunvegan, a valuable property owned by 
two of the Macauley Bros. So we decided to start a day earlier 
and pay them a visit. 

On the morning of 22nd September, after bidding farewell to 
our good friends, we made an early start, and were soon flop, 
flopping through the flood waters. After about five or six miles 
of this we got on to better ground, and, with few exceptions, had 
good roads to Dunvegan. About two o'clock we halt for billy 
tea, which was drunk under difficulties, the mosquitos being so 
attentive, but we made " a smoke," which kept them at a respectful 
distance. During the day we flushed large numbers of the 
Crested Bronze-winged Pigeon, Ochyphaps lophotes ; they were con- 
tinually rising, with their characteristic whirr, in flocks of 4 to 25. 
We also noticed a family of the Twelve Apostles, or Grey 
Struthidea, Struthidea cinerea. In this instance the 12 numbered 
13. While crossing one of the plains we captured two young 
Black-breasted Plover, Sarciophorus pectoral-is. One of these died 
the following day, but the other lived and thrived in captivity 
until about a month ago, when it fell a victim to an Armadale 
rat. A clutch of eggs of this bird is a pretty object, and makes 
a fine photographic picture. On one of the cross roads leading 
to the Wakool River we found an incident of Riverina — a waggon 
loaded with forty bales of wool, which a team of forty bullocks is 
unable to move. We took the picture and sympathized with the 
drivers, as night was coming on apace. Darkness is complete 
when we reach the woolshed of Calimo station. We say, " How 
do ye do " to a friend, and hurry on, as we have a couple of hours' 
journey before us, and more flood water to cross. Cooee Creek 
is reached, and we enter it with a certain amount of dread, but 
we find the water does not rise to the buggy floor. The following 
day two of our friends failed to cross this stream; the water had 
risen so during the interval that it was a dangerous swim. We 
arrived at Dunvegan about 10 p.m., and found the good folks all 
abed. 

The following morning was spent in hunting for birds and eggs, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 79 

but we only succeeded in finding one nest of Myzantha garrula, 
which was not considered rare enough to take. We were shown 
a tree in the creek which contained a Mountain Duck's (Casarca 
tadornoides) nest about sixty feet from the water. About two 
months previous to our visit the pair of birds successfully hatched 
seventeen young ducklings. One morning Mr. J. Macauley was 
called out by his wife in time to see the young brought out of the 
nest. The old birds were in the creek below, and gave a call, 
when out flopped two ducklings from the nest above, spreading 
their featherless wings to act like parachutes, and they prettily 
fell to the water. This performance was repeated until the whole 
seventeen had joined the parent birds. They then all swam 
away, and were seen no more. While watching this tree we 
noticed a Teal fly into the same hollow which had contained the 
Mountain Duck's nest, having probably selected the spot for her 
nest also. 

During the afternooon we went on the hunt for a Native Com- 
panion's nest to photograph ; also to hunt kangaroos, &c. We 
were accompanied by a gun, a horseman, and seven dogs of 
different descriptions. A Companion's nest was soon found, with 
one egg ; this we left until next day, in the hopes of the clutch 
being completed. Immediately after this find we started several 
large kangaroo. " There they go," say the girls. " Yes, there 
they go," says our artist, " right through my nest." These were 
rather too fast for us, and got away. Early next day we found 
the nest intact, but with one egg only ; so the picture was not 
taken. 

Dunvegan is prettily situated, with a frontage to Colligen Creek, 
and the good folks had all mustered for the shearing and were at 
their wits' end to keep the sheep dry, as the flooded waters were 
rising so rapidly. It is hard to say whether these floods should 
be viewed as an unmitigated evil or as a benefit. We are informed 
that the fine feed grass commonly called the Burr Clover will be 
destroyed for three years ; and as for the water deposit being a 
benefit, this can be counted as nil, for we found the water flowing 
in all directions in comparatively clear streams. But against this 
is to be counted the fact that all dams, waterholes, creeks, &c, 
are filled ready for drier seasons. We found the Nardoo plant, 
Marsilea quadrifolia, growing in abundance in almost all directions 
where water was to be found. 

On 24th September we are favoured with a beautiful morning, 
and an early start is made for Deniliquin, seventeen miles away, 
but on account of flood water twenty miles or more. Yallakool 
Creek is distant about three miles, with water almost the whole 
way. On our arrival at the creek we are first punted across in a 
boat ; the buggy is then balanced on the boat, which is pulled 
along a line of fencing wire fastened from tree to tree. And then 
the horses (a fine pair of greys) are hunted across. But the 



80 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

strong current carries them against trees, and there is trouble for 
a time. But with encouraging shouts they at last get over in 
safety, after a little anxiety on our part. We find the timber on 
the opposite bank is full of birds, Magpies, Butcher Birds, Friar 
Birds, and others vying with each other to produce joyous music. 
We were now in our element, but, as the water was rising fast, 
were hurried away, much to our regret. After ploughing through 
some boggy places and a few rather deep water splashes, we got 
on to a good road. Here we met with a slight mishap to our 
buggy, but fencing wire is again handy and the damage soon 
repaired. On a plain in the distance we notice a pretty clump 
of trees, whose golden-green foliage, hanging pendent, claims our 
admiration, and we stop to take our last picture in Riverina — 
" Under the Myalls." Deniliquin is reached in time to catch the 
train for Melbourne, where we part well satisfied with our ex- 
periences of Riverina during full flood. 

The following were the principal birds seen during the trip : — 
Black-breasted Buzzard, White-rumped Wood Swallow (just 
arrived), Black-throated Butcher Bird (probably its most 
southern range), Ground Graucalus, Western Gerygone (G. 
culicivora), Hooded Robin, White-winged Wren (Malurus), 
Xerophila, Rufus-tinted Skylark (just arrived), Spotted Bower 
Bird, Grey Struthidea, Chestnut-crowned Pomatostomus, Lanceo- 
late Honey-Eater, Yellow-rumped Parrakeet, Crested Bronzewing 
Pigeon, Emu, Native Companion, White Ibis, Straw-necked Ibis, 
Pacific Heron, Bittern, Coot, Swan, Ducks (4 species), Crested 
Grebe. 



NOTES ON THE SO-CALLED MIOCENE DEPOSITS OF 
BACCHUS MARSH. 

By C. C. Brittlebank. 
(Bead before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 13th Jidy, 1896.) 

In the Bacchus Marsh district, but principally to the west and 
north-west, there are extensive deposits of clay, sand, gravel, 
ferruginous and argillaceous sandstones and quartz conglomerate, 
the latter being cemented by silica and ferruginous matter. 

The officers of the geological survey of Victoria have mapped 
portions of the above beds under the term Miocene, but in the 
light of later evidence this is probably incorrect. The writer 
applies the term Miocene to those beds described by the geologists 
of the survey under that name. 

The area under notice covers about 100 square miles, fifty of 
which are beyond the limits of the survey. In the above area 
the various exposed formations are Post Pliocene, Newer Pliocene, 
Newer Basalt, Older Basalt, Miocene, Glacial Drift, Lower 
Silurian, Granite. 

At one period nearly the whole of the district lying between 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 81 

the Lerderderg on the north and the Brisbane Ranges on 
the south has been an extensive basaltic plateau, with a fall 
of over 1,200 feet from north-west to south-east. Probably 
the basalt has been poured forth from the volcanic vents 
to the west of Bacchus Marsh — viz., Mounts Blackwood, 
Ingliston, Goorong, and Daraweel. A peculiar feature in this 
flow is that at a point 2^' miles west of Bacchus Marsh it has 
descended a slope of over 300 feet, and then spread over an area 
thousands of acres in extent. The officers of the geological 
survey refer to this as follows : — •" It rises abruptly 300 feet from 
the lower basaltic plain to the high table land, and at this point a 
good section is exposed. A similar feature must have existed in 
the Miocene formation prior to the flow of Newer Basalt." This 
ridge can be traced for about 6^ miles to the south-west. The 
present drainage system has cut deep gorges, gullies, and wide 
valleys through the basalt and underlying beds. Sections of the 
Miocenes are to be seen in the valleys of the Werribee, Parwan, 
and Pyke's Creek ; on the main Ballarat road, between Bacchus 
Marsh and Pyke's Creek, and to the south and north of Myrniong. 
In the valley of the Werribee, west of Bacchus Marsh, a section 
is exposed for about 4^ miles east and west. 

Along this section the Miocenes are composed of white and 
yellowish-white clays, grits, waterworn quartz gravels, and sandy 
clays. Through this section are various-shaped masses of 
ferruginous sandstone, which in some instances contain the 
casts of leaves — Laurus Werribeensis, Cinnamomum poly?)iorph- 
oides — together with casts of fruit. Several bands of white clay 
retain the casts of the abovenamed and various other plants. 
At the east end of the above section, and west of Bacchus Marsh 
about two and a half miles, the Miocene beds are probably 300 
feet in thickness. From this point west they gradually thin out be- 
tween the uprising older rocks and the Newer Basalt. The highest 
point reached by the Miocenes on this section is about 975 feet. 
Clear sections are of rare occurrence, owing to the thick coating 
of " talus " derived from the Newer Basalt and the beds under 
notice. Fortunately miners have driven several tunnels into the 
hill under the basalt. The sections exposed in these, though 
small in extent, show that, as the older rocks are approached, the 
material forming the Miocene beds increases in size. A section 
in one of the drives shows the following section resting upon 
glacial drift : — 5 feet yellowish-white clay — probably derived from 
the underlying Glacial Drift ; 2 feet 6 inches heavy boulder wash, 
2 feet 6 inches coarse gravel, 3 feet fine sand, 2 feet quartz 
pebbles and sand, basalt about 90 feet. At the entrance of one 
of the tunnels a small almost vertical dyke cuts through the 
Glacial Drift, but does not penetrate the overlying Miocenes. 

A section on the north bank of the Werribee, and directly 
south-east from the Trig, station — known locally as " Hat Island " 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



or " Tabletop " — shows in the lower portion a bed of impure 
lignite about 3 feet ; 6 feet tough white clay containing numerous 
plant remains, leaves, fruit, branches, and trunks of trees. These 
latter are more numerous in the lower bed, and form the chief 
part of the band of lignite. From the position of the tree trunks 
it is probable that they were brought together by floods. The 
upper beds of this section, which is here about 250 feet, are 
composed of clay, grits, bands of quartz pebble conglomerate, 
furruginous sandstones, with the usual leaf and fruit casts. 
Four hundred yards up the river the Miocenes are seen over- 
lying the Older Basalt. The exact point of contact is somewhat 
obscure. At and for some distance from the junction the 
Miocenes are greatly altered, leaf and fruit casts being absent. 
Some of the grits and sandy bands have been converted into 
quartzites. 

Following the junction north-west the Miocenes are greatly 
disturbed, and present a peculiar patchwork appearance ; patches 
of light and dark red, brown and bright madder are seen on the 
weathered surfaces. The officers of the geological survey refer 
to this section as under " intrusive Older Basalt, amygdaloidal 
and much decomposed. The overlying Miocene clay beds which 
have here been locally upheaved by this basalt are much indurated 
where in contact with it, and have a peculiar ferruginous red and 
brown mottled appearance." Sections to the north-west show 
dykes of Older Basalt, 17 yards wide, cutting the Glacial Drift. 
I agree with the officers of the survey as to it being of later age 
than the Miocenes of this district. At a point 60 chains east 
from the junction of the Myrniong Creek and Werribee River 
the Older Basalt distinctly overlies the Miocenes. Striking south 
and crossing the Werribee River and basaltic plateau on the 
south, we descend into the valley of the Parwan Creek. This 
valley is about three miles wide by eight long. Towards the 
western end it splits up into several narrow gullies, which are 
bounded by basaltic cliffs from 80 to 100 feet high. Sections 
along either side of this valley show pure white and yellowish- 
white clays, conglomerate cemented with silica and ferruginous 
matter, ferruginous sandstones with the casts of leaves, fruit, &c. 
In the upper portion of the valley the conglomerate and ferru- 
ginous sandstones are absent, white clay and quartz gravel taking 
their place. Thin bands of impure lignite are also exposed 
towards the head of the valley. Some of the white clays in 
contact with the Newer Basalt are greatly altered. In some of 
these clay beds impressions or casts of a reed or rush-like plant 
are numerous. In the overlying Newer Basalt a band of bright 
red clay or ash can be traced for a considerable distance on 
either side of the valley. 

Along this section hundreds of landslips have taken place. 
Some, acres in extent, have moved down the valley side, and as 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 83 



these still retain the basaltic cap, they look like huge steps or 
terraces. 

Striking north about six miles the sections on Pyke's Creek are 
seen ; they rest on Silurian and Glacial Drift, and resemble those 
on the Werribee and Parwan Creeks, viz. : white and yellow 
clays, sand, ferruginous sandstone, quartz gravel containing gold, 
and a dense quartz conglomerate. In the white clay a large 
proportion of common salt is present, so much so that sheep and 
cattle have, by constantly licking, hollowed out small caves 
several feet in depth. Many of the pebbles in the quartz gravels 
have a glass-like polish, probably a secondary deposit of silica. 
Following the main road east the clay beds thin out, their place 
being taken by current bedded quartz gravels, sand, and sharp 
quartz grits. South of Myrniong the beds rest on granite, and 
have been worked for gold, yielding fair returns to those engaged 
upon them. Zircon, sapphire, and quartz crystals occur, together 
with blocks of petrified wood. Between Myrniong and Lyell's 
Creek typical sections of the Miocenes are exposed in the 
cuttings on the main road, and also to the west of Lyell's Creek. 
The general dip of the beds under notice varies from 2 to 14 
east, their thickness being not far short of 400 feet. In the 
area under notice they occur at any level between 300 and 1,900 
feet ; or, in other words, follow the general surface slope of the 
older rocks. To the north and north-west of Myrniong the 
Miocenes thin out considerably. The highest point at which these 
beds have been observed within this district is on the north-west 
base of Mount Blackwood, where sharp grits, fine quartz con 
glomerates, and ferruginous grits occur. Reference has been 
made to the sudden rise in the basaltic sheet to the west of 
Bacchus Marsh. Probably we have here an old coast line, or 
evidence of elevation during Miocene time (?). That a con- 
siderable period elapsed between the laying down of the 
Miocenes and the flow of Newer Basalt is shown by the depth of 
the old river channels. Some of these have cut through the 
overlying Miocenes and then into Granite for a depth of over 
170 feet. Channels of greater depth are seen, one being about 
350 feet. 

The depth of the Pliocene (?) river beds, compared with the 
present drainage system, is about one-half. In several instances 
the rivers and creeks have cut these old channels at various 
angles, exposing the old river drift. These latter are generally 
of dark colour, and contain the remains of numerous plants, 
which are quite distinct from those found in the Miocenes. 
Some of the leaf casts in the old river drift resemble the leaves 
of our present "gum trees." The courses of the old rivers can 
generally be traced by flat-topped ridges of basalt. 

Contrary to what one would expect in a district which has 
passed through such violent volcanic disturbance, dykes of 



84 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Newer Basalt have not been observed cutting through the 
Miocenes. 

The nature of the deposit, together with the vast number 
of plant remains found in the various strata, and the absence 
within the area under notice of a marine fauna, stamps the 
so-called Miocenes of Bacchus Marsh as a freshwater deposit. 
Probably the material has been brought together by rivers 
entering a low-lying area occupied by lakes and swampy land. 
Since the early reference by the officers of the geological survey 
of Victoria to these beds, several writers have written papers and 
reports on the so-called Miocene deposits of Bacchus Marsh ; of 
these, however, I have only had the pleasure of reading Mr. 
W. H. Ferguson's " Notes on the Occurrence of Limestone at 
Merrimu." In conclusion, I would draw attention to the finding 
of chipped flint (?) and quartzite weapons and implements in the 
Post Pliocene deposits of Bacchus Marsh. 



NOTES ON A SERICORNIS FROM KENT GROUP. 

By Lieut.-Colonel Legge, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., &c. 
{Read he/ore the Field Naturalists' Glul of Victoria, l±th September, 1896.) 
Several specimens of a Sericornis from Kent Group have been 
submitted to me by Mr. A. J. Campbell. Three are marked as 
males, the others being unsexed, while one is supposed to be an 
immature example. I have compared them with specimens of 
the Victorian Sericornis frontalis, which, however, are unsexed 
on the labels, though one is presumably a male. The examples 
from the two localities are very similar. The Kent Group 
specimens are one-eighth of an inch larger in the wing. The 
adult birds are darker on the head and have more dark 
colouring about the face and loral region than S. frontalis. 
The most marked difference, however, is in the throat of the 
island birds : both the adults are darker ; in one the dark coloura- 
tion takes the form of a mark instead of stripes as in the bird 
from the mainland ; in the other the marking is striated in char- 
acter, yet more confluent than on the mainland species. The 
white tippings of the primary coverts are much the same in 
both varieties, but the dark edging is more intense in the Victorian 
bird. The colouration of the under surface is the same in both. 
Although the series under consideration is not sufficiently large 
to enable me to pronounce a decided opinion on the specific 
distinctions or otherwise of these examples, I am of opinion that 
the island bird may be considered a sub-species of S. frontalis, 
and would propose the title of Sericornis gularis for it. It is, 
however, probable that a large series from Kent Island might 
upset this decision. The bird was discovered by the expedition 
from the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria which visited these 
islands in November, 1890. 



Victorian Naturalist, JNov.. 1896. 




BARON FERDINAND von MUELLER,. 



THE 



Victorian naturalist* 

Vol. XIII.— No. 7. OCTOBER, 1896. No. 155. 

{PUBLISHED NOVEMBER 5, 1S9G.) 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting which should have taken place on 
Monday evening, 12th October, 1896, was postponed, in con- 
sequence of the death of Baron Sir F. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., 
Government Botanist of Victoria, a patron and one of the 
original members of the Club, who passed away on the 
previous Saturday at the age of 71. 



EXHIBITION OF WILD FLOWERS. 

The exhibition of wild flowers usually held in the early spring by 
the members of the Field Naturalists' Club took place at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, the 28th September, 1896, 
when the display of flowers was greatly admired by a large 
number of the members and their friends. 

The exhibitors this year were greatly aided by the cool and 
pleasant weather experienced while collecting and conveying the 
flowers to town. To secure their exhibits several of the members 
traversed large areas of country, and others, notably Baron von 
Mueller, had enlisted the help of country friends, by which means 
flowers from such extreme points of Victoria as Nhill, Echuca, 
and Sale were placed on exhibition. 

It is impossible to give anything like a correct list of the flowers 
exhibited. The names of the contributors, with mention of their 
most notable flowers, must suffice to give some idea of the 
display. 

Baron von Mueller. — From Mr. St. Eloy D' Alton, Nhill — 
Boronia ccerulescens, Eriostemon sediflorus, Eriostemon 
lepidotus, var. stenophyllus, Eriostemon obovalis, Eriostemon 
diffbrmis, Lasiopetalum Behrii, Lasiopetalum Baueri, Stack- 
housia viminea, Cassia eremophila, Acacia rigens, Acacia 
calamifolia, Acacia hakeoides, Loudonia Behrii, Calycothrix 
tetragona, Thryptomene ciliata, Bceckea Behrii, Eucalyptus 
gracilis, Eucalyptus incrassata, Exocarpus spartea, Pimelea 
stricta, Dampiera lanceolata, Logania linifolia, Prostanthera 
coccinea. From Miss Wise, Sale — Boronia polygalifolia, var. 
anemonifolia, Euphrasia Brownii, Indigo/era Auslralis, 
Styphelia Australis, Correa speciosa (red flower), Comesperma 
volubile, Fieldia Azcstralis, 



11 



nM 



86 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Mr. G. Coghill. — About 60 species from Tunstall and 
Mitcham, including Pterostylis barbata, Galadenia Gairnsiana 
(two flowers on stem), C. suaveolens, Phylloglossum Drum- 
mondi, Sphcerolobium vimineum ; also about 28 species from 
Castlemaine, including Grevillea rosmarinifolia and Erios- 
temon obovalis. 

Mr. J. Paul. — About 60 species from Grantville (Western 
Port), including Banksia collina, Acianthus caudaius, 
Galadenia Menziesii, Ghiloglottis Gunnii, Prasophyllum 
patens. 

Messrs. J. C. Neal and H. Giles. — 70 species from Nar Nar 
Goon, including Pittosporum bicolor, Pomaderris apetela, 
Styphelia ericoides, Zieria Smithii, Grevillea alpina, &c. 

Mr. H. Tisdall. — About 50 species from Eltham, including 
Grevillea rosmarinifolia, Pterostylis barbata, Galadenia 
Gairnsiana, &c. 

Master C. Shephard. — About 20 species from Brighton, includ- 
ing Gomesperrna volubile. 

Mr. R. Hall. — About 12 species from Box Hill, including 
Clematis aristata. 

Mr. J. Harris. — About 20 species from Mornington, including 
Styphelia Richei, Grevillea rosmarinifolia, Isopogon cerato- 
phyllus, &c. 

Mr. J. West. — About 50 species from Phillip Island, including 
a splendid collection of orchids, Melaleuca erieifolia, &c. 

Mr. G. Shephard. — About 60 species from Somerville, includ- 
ing Styphelia ericoides, Gomesperrna ericinum (with white 
flowers), Correa speciosa (with red flowers), &c. 

Mr. C. French, F.L.S., and Mr. D. Best. — About 40 species 
from Cheltenham, including Lyperanthus nigricans, Thely- 
mitra antennifera, &c, also Diplarrhena Moraea from 
Beacon sfield. 

Mr. C. French, jun., and Mr. C. Walter. — About 50 species 
from Mordialloc, including Acacia pycnantha, Muehlenbeckia 
adpressa, Dillwynia Jloribunda, Podolepis acuminata, 
Galadenia latifolia, &c. 

Mr. C. Frost. — About 50 species from Ringwood and Chelten- 
ham, including Polypompholyx tenella, Utricularia dichotoma, 
Galadenia suaveolens, &c. 

Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. — About 70 species from Upper 
Beaconsfield, including Epacris microphylla, Plagianthus 
pulchellus, Galadenia suaveolens, Pterostylis curta (almost 
white), Sprengelia incarnata ; also Lhotzkya genetylloides 
grown at Kew, and Acacia acinacea from Studley Park. 

Mr. W. Scott. — About 20 species from New South Wales, in- 
cluding Dendrobium speciosum, Boronia serrulata, Telopea 
speciosissima, &c. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 87 

BARON VON MUELLER. 

Amongst the very numerous societies with which Baron von 
Mueller was associated, there was probably none in which he was 
beter known than in our Field Naturalists' Club. From its 
formation he has been our patron ; probably every member has 
been brought into personal, and many of us into continual 
contact with him ; his name has been a household word amongst 
us, and his memory will long be held in sincere and affectionate 
respect. It is hard, indeed, to realize that a younger generation 
must arise to whom the presence of the Baron, so familiar to us, 
will only be a tradition. 

It is now just fifty years ago since he published the first of the 
long series of monographs which were to make famous amongst 
systematic botanists the name of the then unknown student, 
Ferdinand Mueller. 

His father was Commissioner of Customs in the little town of 
Rostock, and there he was born in 1825, and received his early 
education, evidently intending from an early age to become a 
pharmaceutical chemist ; in fact, his first employment was as 
chemist's assistant in the town of Husum in Schleswig-Holstein. 
From Rostock he went to study at the University of Kiel, where 
he passed his pharmaceutical examination in 1846, his early 
studies in which direction will explain the interest which he has 
always taken in this department. 

Meanwhile, however, he had attended the botany lectures of 
Professor Nolte, and with characteristic energy had set to work 
studying and collecting in his spare time the plants of the island 
of Sylt, and in 1846 he presented, as a thesis for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy in the University of Kiel, a paper on 
Capsella biorsa-pastoris, the common Shepherd's Purse. In the 
same year he published in Flora, the journal of the Botanical 
Society of Regensburg, in Bavaria, a more extensive paper on 
the flora of Schleswig-Holstein, and though he was unable to 
devote himself as yet entirely to his favourite study, it is evident 
that his path in life was already clearly marked out for him, and 
that, wherever he was or whatever occupation he might have to 
follow, the study of botany would be his main object. 

Late in 1846, Dr. Preiss, a friend of the Mueller family, had 
returned from a visit to Western Australia, and being acquainted 
with the phthisical tendency of the student and his sisters, had 
strongly urged their emigration to the more genial climate of the 
sunny south. Accordingly Dr. Mueller and his sisters set sail, 
and arrived in Port Adelaide in December, 1847. His capital 
was limited mainly to his brains, so he had to find something to 
do, and readily got and accepted employment in the chemist's 
shop of Heuzenroeder, in Rundle-street. Adelaide was not then 
what it is now, and one had not to go far afield to get beyond 



88 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

the reach of civilization. All his spare time was spent in study- 
ing the new flora with which he found himself surrounded, and in 
connection with this work he made expeditions to various parts, 
then, it must be remembered, difficult of access and peopled with 
not too friendly natives, such as the Murray scrubs, Guichen Bay, 
and Mount Brown, the highest point of the Flinders Range, gain- 
ing in this way his first insight into the Australian flora, which he 
was subsequently destined to do so much to elucidate. 

Having bought some land in the Bugle Ranges, it was ap- 
parently at one time his idea to settle down there and cultivate 
it. Doubtless he intended to have his home in this spot, and to 
make, when possible, expeditions in various directions. At any 
rate, he had already devoted a considerable amount of time and 
energy to collecting plants and noting facts relative to the flora, 
his earlier papers being written in conjunction with Dr. Soulier, 
and published in the botanical paper Linncea, issued at Halle, in 
Germany. 

The life on the land did not, however, prove at all attractive, 
and in a very short time we find him back again in Adelaide, 
once more engaged in his old occupation. 

In 1852, at the time of the gold rush, he was attracted to this 
colony. Evidently his reputation as a botanist had preceded 
him, for in the same year Governor Latrobe appointed him 
Government Botanist to the colony of Victoria, and from that time 
onward he devoted himself with untiring, and one might almost 
say with phenomenal, energy to the work of the post, which 
was described as the investigation of the vegetable resources of 
the colony, though it may be said without any exaggeration 
whatever that, whilst Victoria had the honour of claiming him as 
her botanist, the other colonies shared almost equally in the 
advantages to be derived from his wide knowledge ; he was in 
fact, though not in name, Government Botanist of Australia. Not 
only was his reputation world-wide, but, what is more remarkable, 
there was probably no township or hamlet in the whole of 
Australia, from Cape York to Hobart and from Sydney to Perth, 
in which the name of Baron von Mueller was not known and 
respected. 

When appointed Government Botanist, Mr. Dallachy was 
Curator of the Botanic Gardens, Dr. Mueller's duties in con- 
nection with them consisting in the scientific naming and 
arrangement of the plants. Subsequently, in 1857, he became 
head of the Gardens ; but, later on again, these were most wisely 
placed under the charge of Mr. Guilfoyle, Dr. Mueller being 
thus left free to undertake the more purely scientific work 
attaching to the Botanical Department — an arrangement which 
no one will now deny was most wise and of great advantage both 
to the Gardens and the Department. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 89 

At first Dr. Mueller occupied a small, unpretentious cottage 
which still overlooks the Yarra below Government House, and 
the three years succeeding his appointment, 1852-55, were with 
him times of great activity. In search of plants he explored a 
large part of Victoria, crossing the Alps, where he gave the name 
to Mount Hotham. As early as 1853 he had been on the top of 
Mount Buffalo, and the same year found him starting alone from 
Melbourne, with three horses, to explore what were then the 
almost untrodden wilds of Gippsland. The sight of him, as 
he passed through what was then the countrified suburb of 
Hawthorn, mounted on his favourite pony, and driving before him 
his pack-horses laden with his collecting material and slender 
allowance of food, is still vividly remembered by one of the 
oldest members of our club. 

The Mallee district and the Grampians were also traversed by 
him in search of plants to enrich the national Herbarium, which, 
under his guidance, and due entirely to his zeal, has become by 
far the richest in the Southern Hemisphere. 

In 1855 he went further afield and joined the veteran explorer, 
A. C. Gregory, in his expedition across the north-west, on which 
occasion the Victoria River and other parts were explored. He 
was one of the four who reached Termination Lake in 1856, and 
after accompanying Gregory on the return journey to Moreton 
Bay, he came south again to Melbourne, publishing afterwards 
the main botanical results in the Linnean Society's journal. 

In 1857 he was appointed, as before said, Director of the 
Botanic Gardens as well as Government Botanist. At this time 
the zoological collection was located in the Gardens, and it was 
during his directorship that the alpacas were introduced to the 
colony. 

There now commenced the period of his greatest activity, so 
far as the publication of works is concerned, and from this date 
up to the time of his death it may be said that he was always 
engaged upon some publication dealing with the Australian flora. 

One of the earliest of these was the " Plants Indigenous to 
the Colony of Victoria," whilst between the years 1858 and 1881 
eleven parts of the " Fragmenta Phytographise Australian " were 
issued ; this work curiously being, we believe, the first published 
in Latin in Australia. Its object was to contain descriptions of 
new species of plants and observations of importance on others 
which came under his notice, the whole being intended as a 
record leading up to a comprehensive flora of Australia, which it 
was his long-cherished desire to issue. When the time came, 
however, for carrying the work into execution, it was apparent 
that it could only be successfully done by someone who had 
access to the type specimens in Europe, and this being impossible 
in the case of Dr. Mueller, the work was published by Bentham, 



90 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

associated with the former. All collections were first examined 
by him, then sent to London, revised, and finally dealt with by 
Bentham, the result being the seven classical volumes forming 
the "Flora Australiensis," published between 1863 and 1878. 
We quote the following words from Dr. Bentham's introduction to 
the "Flora" : — " When, indeed, it was first contemplated to bring 
out a general flora of Australia under Government sanction, Dr. 
Mueller was naturally looked to as the botanist best qualified for 
undertaking the task of preparing it ; and in the hope that it 
would be entrusted to him he had devoted his utmost energies 
to collecting the necessary materials. But there was one indis- 
pensable step, the examination of European herbaria, where the 
published types were deposited, which he was unable to take ; 
and it is a signal proof of the generosity of his disposition, and 
the absence of all selfishness, that when it was proposed to him 
that the preparation of the " Flora" should be confided to me, 
on account of the facilities which my position here gave me for 
the examination of the Australian collections I have mentioned 
above, he not only gave up his long-cherished projects in my 
favour, but promised to do all in his power to assist me — a 
promise which he has fulfilled with the most perfect faith." 

Already the value of his work had been recognized, by his 
election into the Royal Society in i86r, and ten years later he 
was created a Baron of the Kingdom of Wurtemberg. Honours 
of various kinds began to reward his efforts, but instead of 
tempting him to rest upon his laurels, they only seemed to spur 
him on to further work. 

In 1879 he commenced the publication of what is perhaps his 
most important single contribution to our knowledge of the 
Australian flora — the " Ten Decades of the Eucalyptographia," 
a difficult genus, in which naturally he was deeply interested. Not 
only did the purely scientific side of the work appeal to him, but 
here as in other work the economic aspect found in him a zealous 
investigator. It was mainly through his efforts that attention 
was drawn to the supposed hygienic properties of the trees ; and 
it was through his instrumentality that the Blue Gum — Eucalyptus 
globulus — was introduced into the malarious districts of the old 
world, whilst he was also much associated with Mr. Bosisto in 
the investigation of the eucalyptus oils. 

From the economic aspect, perhaps his most important work 
— indeed, it would seem to have been one of his most favourite 
ones — was that on " Select Extra-Tropical Plants," intended as a 
guide to plants suitable for industrial cultivation in the colony, 
and of which between 187 1 and 1895 no fewer than eight editions 
were issued. Of works of economic value may also be mentioned 
a translation, with original notes, which he caused to be published 
at his own expense, of Wittstein's " Organic Constituents of 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 91 

Plants," and also reports by Messrs. Hoffman and Rummel on 
" Chemical Researches on Vegetable Products of Victoria." 

In 1887-88 he published the "Iconography of Australian Species 
of Acacia and Cognate Genera," consisting of 130 plates, with 
explanatory matter; in 1886 the work on Myoporineae was com- 
menced, with 72 plates, and in 1890-91 he published the two 
volumes on Salsolaceous Plants — a work of considerable economic 
value, and likely to be still more highly valued when Australia is 
fully alive to the great economic importance of this part of its flora. 

In 1885 he commenced to work, at the instigation especially of 
the late Dr. F. S. Dobson, a former president of this club, on the 
" Dichotomous Key to the Victorian Flora." The plan was one 
which was clearly distasteful to him, and though, as with all his 
other work, he expended upon it a great amount of conscientious 
labour, it must be frankly admitted that from the point of view for 
which it was intended it was not a success ; indeed, it may be 
doubted whether a work on such a plan could be satisfactory 
beyond a certain and very limited degree. The Baron was pre- 
eminently an investigator, and not a teacher in the ordinary sense 
of the word, and with his profound knowledge it is not to be 
wondered at that he found the dichotomous method almost 
impossible to utilize in the grouping and identification of species. 

Amongst other works may be noticed his papers on the Papuan 
plants of D'Albertis and Macleay, and, in more recent years, on 
those collected by Sir Wm. Macgregor in New Guinea, and in 
the New Hebrides by Mr. Campbell. The works of explorers 
such as Babbage, M'Douall Stuart, Giles, and J. and A. Forrest, 
and the report of the Elder expedition, contain valuable lists of 
the flora of various little known parts of the continent. 

For years past collectors from all parts of the continent, many 
subsidized by himself, but many others, fired by his enthusiasm, 
working gladly to assist him, have supplied him with material, 
the results of his work being scattered through various publications, 
more especially those of the Linnean Society of New South Wales, 
the Victorian, Tasmanian, and South Australian Royal Societies, 
and the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. One of the finds which 
pleased him most in recent years was that of the only known 
Australian Rhododendron (R. Lochce), secured by Mr. Sayer on 
Mount Bellenden-Kerr, in Queensland. 

His invaluable " Systematic Census of Australian Plants," the 
second edition of which was published in 1889, serves to show 
the extent of his labours, not only in adding to the known flora, 
but in elucidating the geographical distribution of all Australian 
species. Right up to the end he was at work ; indeed, his last 
communication — a note on Boronia floribunda — was read at the 
September meeting of the Linnean Society, N.S.W., only ten days 
before his death. 



92 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Outside the domains of botany he was perhaps most interested 
in geographical exploration, and for many years was an enthu- 
siastic member and officer of the Victorian Branch of the 
Geographical Society, in which capacity he was intimately 
associated with many expeditions, such as, in recent times, those 
of Giles and the still more recent Elder expeditions, whilst his 
own explorations were of no mean order. His keen and almost 
pathetic interest in the fate of Leichardt is well known to everyone 
with whom he came in contact, while during the past few years, 
his strongest wish in connection with exploration, and in the attempt 
to realize which he spent much time and energy, has been to 
see an Antarctic expedition fitted out by the Australasian colonies. 

In 1890 he presided over the first meeting of the Australasian 
Science Association held in Melbourne, and those who listened 
to his presidential address, and to whom perhaps he was mostly 
known as a distinguished botanist, could not help being struck 
with the breadth of his knowledge and the catholicity of his 
interests. 

He was above all things an ardent student and investigator 
and an indefatigable worker. For outward appearances, and even 
for what would be to most men the ordinary comforts of life, he 
cared absolutely nothing. So long as he could do his work he 
was content, and though by no means physically robust, the 
amount of work which he got through was something astounding. 
His correspondence alone would have been work enough for any 
ordinary man. In this respect he was most punctilious, and his 
correspondents always knew that their efforts would be appreciated 
and promptly acknowledged. Only ill-health would prevent 
the answering of a letter or the acknowledgment of a specimen. 

The last meeting which he attended was the September one of 
our club, and after so many years during which he has been 
going in and out amongst us it is hard to realize that " the Baron," 
as he was always called, has really passed away. At times we have 
smiled at the quaintness of his speech and manner, but behind 
this there has been the deep respect and admiration for the man 
who devoted himself with such wholeheartedness to the work 
which he carried out so well and so faithfully. The whole of his 
income and all his means were expended either in private 
generosity or in the furtherance of science work, and he died a 
poor man. 

In recent years the Royal Society of London honoured him 
with the award of one of their gold medals, and the French 
Institute elected him a corresponding member, but none of the 
honours justly given to him made the least difference in the 
simple and friendly way in which he used to come in and out 
amongst as, and it will be many years before we grow accustomed 
to the absence of the once-familiar figure of the Baron. 

W. B. S 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 93 

UNDER EASTERN BAW BAW : A BOTANICAL TRIP 
IN THE GIPPSLAND MOUNTAINS. 

By Henry Thos. Tisdall. 
(Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 10th August, 1896.^ 
During the midwinter holidays, being bent on a botanical 
expedition, I determined to revisit Walhalla, the golden city of 
the Gippsland Mountains. It is situated on a small tributary of 
the River Thomson, within a few miles of their junction. 
Leaving the Gippsland railway at Moe, a good team of horses set 
off merrily for the hills. The first few miles are comparatively 
level, but we soon came to rising ground. The first hills are 
evidently old sand hummocks where in far distant ages the sea 
had full dominion, but they are now covered by a sparse supply 
of various kinds of low eucalypts, a plentiful undergrowth of 
scrub, interspersed with broad patches of long coarse grass. 
Amongst the scrub I noticed a great number of dwarf Banksias, 
the smaller Grass Trees (Xanthorrhcea minor) Native Hop 
(Daviesia latifolia), prickly wattle, &c, while the tussocky grass 
was enlivened by an immense quantity of white and red heaths 
{Epacris impressa). 

As the road is of the most primitive description, it took us 
several hours to reach the changing place on the River Tyers. 
With fresh horses we made a gallant start, but the road now 
becomes much more rugged as we ascend the side of the Moon- 
darra plateau. A great change is noticeable in the scenery ; the 
trees are much larger, and great clumps of Hazel [Pomaderris 
apetala), Blanket Tree (Senecio Bedfordii), &c, can be seen at 
both sides of the road. The plateau itself is evidently the 
remains of an immense stream of lava, which was thrown out by 
Mount Bavv Baw in ancient times, and covered the country east- 
ward as far as Ostler's Creek, the main body flowing west and 
south towards Warragul. After passing Jacob's Creek, which 
separates Upper and Lower Moondarra, the road becomes worse 
and worse, the rich chocolate soil allowing the wheels to churn 
it into such a mass of mud that it would be almost impassable in 
parts only for the corduroy, which is a road formed by placing 
small tree stems across the road quite close to each other. This 
kind of road, though it prevents the wheels from sinking, has its 
own particular drawbacks. For the driver always takes advantage 
of the corduroy and drives so quickly over the uneven surface 
that, as a passenger remarked, " it was enough to shake one's eye 
teeth out." The descent into the valley of the River Thomson 
is very steep, but in time we got safely down, and, as we were 
now only five miles from Walhalla, we congratulated ourselves on 
soon making a speedy end to a rather tiresome journey; but, alas, 
we reckoned without our host, for it came on to rain, and what 



94 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

between the wet, the steep inclines, the darkness, and, above all, 
the wretched state of the road, it took us nearly three hours to 
get over that short distance. Wet, cold, and wretched, we 
arrived at our destination at last. 

However, a warm welcome and a night's rest cheered me so that 
I was quite ready to commence operations next day. I visited 
my old haunts, but found that they were of the past. North, south, 
east, and west I travelled day after day, with very little success. 
The truth is that mining and botany are incompatible. The mines 
require firewood and timber, and the ruthless sawyer and wood- 
splitter has no veneration or respect for the beauties of nature. 
Magnificent trees, lovely bushes, and fern-covered glades soon 
disappear ; years of such work have destroyed the environs of 
Walhalla. Fortunately I fell in with Mr. Thomas, the mining 
surveyor, who told me of a couple of fern-tree gullies northward 
from Walhalla which were as yet in their primitive state. 

I determined to follow his instructions the following day. As 
the distance was considerable and had to be made on foot it was 
necessary to make an early start. Slowly and reluctantly I got up 
at five o'clock the next morning. It was freezing hard, and, after 
being used to the mild atmosphere of Melbourne, I felt the cold 
very much. I started shortly before seven and walked smartly 
northward, first up the valley and then along the road that wound 
in a very serpentine manner, now around rocky spurs and anon 
into shady gullies, up the side of the steep hill. Thoroughly warm 
and rather tired, I sat down on a stump near the top and gazed 
back over the scene. Nearly 1,000 feet beneath lay the township, 
but so covered with mist that the valley seemed to be filled by a 
vast river. Above the rim of the mist numbers of white cottages 
could be seen perched on the steep hillsides, while the scrub 
which had taken the place of the huge trees, long since cut down, 
looked almost black in contrast with the white billowy vapour 
beneath. The sun was just rising, and although I was still in 
deep shade the tips of the Black Diamond and neighbouring 
hills were brightened by its rays. Altogether it was a scene well 
worthy of the brush of a good artist. From the top of the hill 
the scenery was even more beautiful. Generally in Gippsland the 
view is rather circumscribed, in consequence of the height of the 
timber, but here there was nothing to obstruct the vision. 

The hills in the immediate neighbourhood were quite denuded 
of trees, and the white river of mist which overhung and marked 
the basin of the River Thomson could be seen winding along for 
miles under the base of Baw Baw. The mountain itself rose 
majestically out of the mist, its summit completely covered with 
snow ; lower down the dazzling white was broken here and there 
by deep valleys, whilst its base was fringed by a margin of dark, 
tall trees. The road now passes along the top of the ridge, but 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 95 

it is very uneven — now rising upward, and then descending into 
deep saddles. The soil must be very rich, judging from the 
vegetation. Once past the limits of the sawyer and the wood- 
splitter, some miles north of Walhalla, and the primitive bush is 
reached. Far overhead stretch the vast limbs of Messmate {E. 
obliqua), Stringy bark (E. capitillata), Manna Gum (E. viminalis), 
and the spurious Ironbark (E. Sieberiana), with its dark, rough 
stem and beautiful white limbs, which glisten in the sunlight as if 
they were made of silver. It is a curious fact that the only variety 
of the Giant Gum (E. amygdalina) is a poor scubby tree, called in 
the district Peppermint — its timber is very inferior even for fire- 
wood — whereas, in the gullies of the Moondarra Plateau, which is 
only separated from Walhalla by the River Thomson, I have 
seen young trees of this species hardly 18 inches through 
springing up to nearly 180 feet, and I have measured mature 
specimens having a circumference of nearly 70 feet. The sawyers 
also assured me that the timber was of excellent quality. The 
undergrowth consists principally of acacias and other leguminous 
plants, Prostanthera lasiantha, &c. Amongst the acacias I 
noticed Acacia linearis, and one of our very few wattles which 
bear true leaves — A. discolor. I was anxious to obtain some 
specimens of Pomaderris elacthophylla, but was unsuccessful. 
It is a very pretty shrub, of grey or silvery appearance, with tiny 
circular leaves, and when in bud is covered with small racemes 
like miniature bunches of grapes. It used to be very common 
on this spur. 

A few more miles brought me to a steep sidling path which led 
down to the now celebrated Bonanza mine. This mine is situated 
in the bottom of a deep gorge, and the gully I had come so far to 
visit emptied its waters close to the workings. I need hardly 
mention that it is a new discovery, or my trip would have been 
in vain. On entering the gully I found a pretty stream babbling 
over the white pebbles, and winding through a broad valley (that 
is, broad for this district). The sides of the stream, and indeed the 
whole valley, was covered with Wattles, Musk {Aster aryophyllus), 
Blanket Tree (tienecio Bedfordii), Christmas Tree {Prostanthera 
lasiantha), Hazel {Pomaderris apetala), &c, and ferns of various 
kinds. Amongst these can be seen the stems of huge white gums 
piercing the green canopy and towering far overhead. Where the 
stream forces its way through a rocky pass I noticed a splendid 
specimen of Todea Africana, its huge bole, about five feet high 
and fully three feet in diameter, crowned by a magnificent 
spread of fronds, bending gracefully near their ends. The upper 
side of the frond is of a shining green. Unfortunately for me 
they were not in fruit. 

As I worked my way upward I found that the gully 
narrows considerably, the scrub decreases, and the fern trees, 



96 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Dicksonia Antarctica, continue to increase. A short distance 
from the entrance I found a splendid specimen of Correa 
Lawrenciana ; it was nearly twenty feet high, and its long narrow 
branches spread out on all sides. It was in full bloom ; there 
must have been many thousands of blossoms on it, and hundreds 
had already fallen off; its flowers were light green. Mr. 
Luehmann informed me that he had seen specimens of this plant 
of even larger dimensions on the Upper Murray, and sometimes 
they bore red flowers. But the most noticeable plants in the 
gully belong to the cryptogams. In some places the ground was 
completely covered with the coarser variety of Lomaria Capensis ; 
in another place Lomaria discolor would flourish to the exclusion 
of everything else. As I ascended the hills closed in, making in 
places huge banks of clay or rock. The clay portions were gener- 
ally dotted all over by the curious reddish -yellowlichens, Bseomyces, 
whilst the steep rocks bore a plentiful crop of mosses, lichens, 
Jungermanii, and small fungi. The curious moss, Gyathaphorum 
pinnata, was in fruit, and very plentiful ; it almost completely 
covered the lower parts of tree ferns and fallen logs. Creeping 
plants of Hypnum were to be seen in every direction. Amongst 
the Jungermanii, Umbraculum and Chiloschyphus were very 
common. Fungi were very plentiful. I found a quantity of 
Polyporus spumeus growing tier over tier, fastened like a 
number of reddish shelves on the base of a white gum. Nearly 
every rotten log had masses of the white, jelly-like Tremella albida 
growing on it, as well as the orange-coloured Dacrymices ; the 
last-named was generally seen peeping out from small cracks in 
the wood. On a half-decayed hazel I found a quantity of the 
lovely little blue agaric Leptonia lampropus. This fungus is 
mentioned by Cooke as being only found in pastures ; they 
are, however, very common in the Dandenong Ranges and other 
places, but I have never noticed them except on trunks of trees. 
For the second time I found, on the under side of a fallen log, 
that curious little green fungus Ghlorosplenium ceraginosiwn. I 
got it many years ago at Moondarra, but I made sure that it was 
a lichen, in consequence of its peculiar colour ; however, Cooke 
has placed it as a fungus. 

In the crevice of a rock, which was filled with decayed vegetable 
matter, I discovered a very pretty group of Marasmius. Amongst 
patches of ferns the white-stemmed, yellow-topped Agaricus inopus 
rose in groups from half-buried rotten logs. The Earth-Star 
(Geaster Jioriformis), flourished in great quantities, but it was just 
at the bursting period, so the specimens obtained were very 
poor. Another Geaster of a different species was also plentiful, 
but too far gone for collection. At the base of a large gum I 
found a few plants of the orange-coloured Tremella mesenterica, 
but it also was too old. Many other fungs were also obtained — 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 97 

mostly Agarics and Polyporei. From a very tall hazel I remarked 
great festoons of Tecoma Australia, but it was not in bloom. In 
places hundreds of young plants of Clematis were to be seen. A 
great nmmber of the fern trees were decorated by the trailing 
rhizomes and bright green leaves of the so-called Victorian Stag 
Fern, Polypodium pustulatum. Wherever the trunk of a tree 
fern was somewhat out of the perpendicular — particularly if it bent 
towards the south— the under side was sure to have masses of 
long, delicate, filmy ferns (H. nitens or H. Javanicum) de- 
pending from it. I was very anxious to get some young plants 
of Grevillea miqueliana, but was unsuccessful in my search. 
Nearing the source of the gully the scrub became more and more 
sparse, until at length ferns and their congeners became the sole 
occupiers of the valley. 

As I had now spent about four hours in the gully, and as the 
vegetation was getting very thick and awkward to pass, I deter- 
mined to climb the face of the hill, and found myself after nearly 
an hour's hard work on the Mt. Useful road, about nine miles 
north of Walhalla. The beautiful scenery of Eastern Baw Baw 
and the valleys of the Thomson and Aberfeldy rivers were spread 
out before me, but I was too tired to admire them, and turned my 
steps towards the town, where I arrived safely about 5 o'clock, 
having spent a pretty hard but very interesting and profitable ten 
hours. 



NOTES ON THE MODE OF WOOD PETRIFACTION. 
By James H. Wright. 
(Communicated by T. S. Hall.) 
(Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 14th September, 1896.^ 
On breaking up some quartzite rocks recently I obtained a 
specimen of petrified wood in a form rarely met with. As this 
fossil appears to throw some light upon the manner in which 
the petrifaction of wood is accomplished, I think it merits a 
description. 

When found, the fossil was enclosed in a block of ferruginous 
quartzite, of an age anterior to that of the Older Volcanic rocks 
of South Gippsland. The fossil presented the appearance of a 
portion of the stem or branch of a plant. It was about six inches 
in length, with a diameter of about half an inch. It looked 
fairly compact in structure, but when disturbed was found to 
consist of loose silicious fibres. On submitting these to a 
microscopic examination they were seen to be silicious casts of 
the tracheides of a woody tissue. 

In these casts the interior of the tracheides has been faithfully 
portrayed down to the minutest detail, the exact obverse of the 
bordered pits appearing as disc-like protuberances upon the 



98 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

surface of the silicious threads. In many instances it is apparent 
that the cellulose partition separating the opposite pairs of pits 
was ruptured before silicification took place. The cast on the 
surface of the thread then appears as that of a double pit, the 
breakage occurring at the neck, which formed the point of 
juncture between the pit cast and the fibre opposite to that to 
which the cast remains attached. A group of fibres, whose 
relative position has not been disturbed, shows round each thread 
an open space, corresponding to the walls of the tracheides, and 
portions of the remains of these walls still adhere to the thread in 
places. 

It is evident from the fibrous condition of the fossil that the 
process of petrifaction was interrupted prior to the decomposition 
of the walls of the tracheides. When that stage was reached at 
which the open vessels had been filled the specimen was 
evidently buried under the accumulation of silt and gravel, which 
afterwards formed the rock in which it was found. Subsequent 
decay removed the organic material of the cell walls, and left the 
silicious fibres separate and distinct. But it is clear that had the 
fossil been subjected to similar petrifactive influences after the 
disappearance of the cell walls, further silicification would have 
taken place, filling up the spaces formerly occupied by the walls, 
and converting the fibrous condition of the body into a dense 
and stony one. 

The question arises as to whether this specimen does not repre- 
sent the initial stage of a process to which all wood that has 
undergone petrifaction has been subjected. The theory some- 
times met with, that in these cases the organic material has been 
removed atom by atom and replaced by a mineral, has always 
appeared to me to be inadequate to account for the phenomena. 
It seems to be more reasonable to suppose that a cast is first taken 
of the open vessels, and solidity arrived at by the filling in of the 
interspaces when decomposition of the vegetable matter renders 
this possible. This explanation will account for that close resem- 
blance to a woody structure that is frequently to be seen in dense 
stony masses, wherein are represented more or less distinctly the 
outlines of the ligneous fibres. It will also account for those cases 
where the solid condition merges into a fibrous one ; for it is easy 
to conceive that the extremities of a specimen which had reached 
the first stage might be so completely solidified to a certain depth, 
through partial decomposition of the retained woody matter, that 
the ends might be effectively sealed up, and the interior fibres 
protected from further petrifactive action. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 99 

NOTES ON AN ENTOMOGENOUS FUNGUS. 

These notes refer to the life-history of a small parasitic fungus of 
possibly considerable economic value, since it attacks the larvae 
of Agrotis infusa, A. breviuscula, A. munda, and several allied 
species, all of them mischievous at all times, and in years of 
abnormal increase causing the almost complete destruction of 
cereal crops and grasses, English barley and various fodder grasses 
being most liable to attack. 

They will strip a grass paddock, eating all before them, but in a 
barley field their attention is directed more especially to a small 
part of the stalk just below the ear, so that one or two grubs can 
quickly cut off all the grain-bearing portions of the plant, leaving 
the almost worthless leaves and stalk untouched. 

The fungus makes its appearance amongst these larva? from June 
to January, but seems to be more common in June and July than 
later on in the summer months. It appears to be closely related 
to the fungus Emjmsa muscce found on the house-fly. 

When a grub is attacked, it usually climbs to near the top of a 
tall head of grass, and remains there after death, firmly held on by 
its feet. For some hours the larva is exteriorly unaltered, though on 
closer inspection a minute white tuft or two may be occasionally 
seen on the under surface of the thorax. After exposure for a day 
two in the open air nothing but the dried shrunken skin will be 
found, empty and brittle, still firmly adherent to the grass stem, 
and looking like a piece of very narrow black ribbon about an 
inch long. 

In order to observe the intermediate stages the insect when just 
dead should be kept in a moist atmosphere, supported over a 
piece of glass to secure the spores. Under these conditions about 
fifteen hours will suffice for a complete change in the insect's 
appearance. Its rotund body will have shrunken considerably, 
and will be covered with a dense mass of fawn-coloured material 
consisting of short cells from 9 to 15 /x. in diameter, containing 
rounded globules. The glass for a distance of about a quarter of 
an inch on each side of the insect will be found thickly covered with 
spores, smooth, hyaline, pear-shaped to oval, averaging 25 x 15 p. 
They preserve their shape and size even when dry mounted for 
many months. 

As an instance of the economic value of this parasite, I may 
mention that in a paddock near Windsor, in the year 1893, the 
moths previously mentioned were unusually numerous, and the 
number of larva? during the next season was also far in excess of 
anything previously noted, but were so thoroughly kept in check 
by the fungus that scarcely any moths could be found next year. 

I have records of the occurrence of this fungus on these larvse 
at Ararat, Ballarat, Beech Forest, Melbourne, Millbrook, and 
Woodend.— W. H. F. Hill, Windsor. 



100 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Note. — St. Helena. — As showing the changes which may take 
place in the flora of a district within a few years, the following ex- 
tract from an article entitled " Some Curious Facts in Plant Dis- 
tribution," by W. B. Hemsley, F.R.S., in Knowledge for September 
last, may be of interest. He says: — " I will now take the reader to 
the historically interesting island of St. Helena, in the Atlantic ; 
a rugged, rocky island, rising nearly 3,000 feet above the sea, and 
having an area of 28,000 acres. Its isolation is extreme, being 
upwards of 1,000 miles from the coast of Africa, and nearly 2,000 
miles from the nearest point of the American continent. When 
first discovered it was entirely clothed with forests, but no mammals 
of any kind inhabited the island. As was customary in those 
days, hogs and goats were introduced, in order to provide food 
for chance visitors in the future. The goats especially multiplied 
to such an extent that they destroyed the vegetation, or at least 
prevented seedlings from growing up and replacing that removed 
by decay or felling. The aboriginal vegetation consisted almost 
entirely of woody plants and ferns, the bulk of the former belong- 
ing to the great family Compositce, of which the daisies and asters 
are familiar examples. It was not until the beginning of the 
present century that the island was thoroughly botanized, and it 
is possible that some of the native plants had already 
disappeared ; at all events, many were already very rare. In 
1875 an exhaustive account was published of the condition 
of the then almost entirely displaced native plants, as well as of 
the plants that had replaced them. At that date less than 
half a dozen of the sixty-five certainly indigenous species 
of flowering plants and ferns collected in the island at the 
beginning of the century were actually extinct ; yet, with the 
exception of a few scattered individuals, the only remnant of 
the former flora was high up in the central ridge of mountains 
and in inaccessible parts of the island. Trees that once covered 
hundreds of acres were reduced to a few individuals ; some to a 
single example. Large areas once covered with vegetation are 
now bare, in consequence of the rains having washed the soil 
from the rocks. In other parts the ground has been completely 
taken possession of by introduced plants from various parts of 
the world, prominent amongst which are many British species. 
Our common furze is now the most abundant shrub in the island, 
affording employment to many natives, who cut it and take it 
into the town to be used as fuel. Among trees the British oak is 
one of the most thoroughly naturalized, growing to a great size 
and producing acorns in profusion ; and the Scotch fir and allied 
species had been planted to the extent of two hundred acres in 
1875. Thus has nearly the whole surface of the island been 
completely altered ; and soon, doubtless, most of the original 
plants of the island will be extinct, for they exist nowhere else in 
a wild state, and those in cultivation are difficult to preserve." 



THE 

tyictovian |t a t u r a 1 1 1 ♦ 

Vol. Xin.— No. 8. NOVEMBER, 1896. No. 156. 

{PUBLISHED DECEMBER 9, 1896.) 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, 16th November, 1896. Mr. 
J. Shepherd, one of the vice-presidents, occupied the chair, and 
some forty members and visitors were present. 

THE LATE BARON VON MUELLER. 

Before proceeding with the ordinary business of the evening, 
Air. D. Best, as one of the founders of the Club, asked to be 
allowed to say a few words in reference to the very great loss the 
Club had sustained in the death, on the 10th of October last, of 
Baron Sir F. von Mueller, at the age of 71, one of the original 
members of the Club, and one whose help was always freely given 
to any of the members, especially to those requiring information 
on botanical matters. He moved — " That this Club desires to 
have recorded on its minutes its many obligations to, and sincere 
regret at the loss of, Baron Ferdinand von Mueller, K.C.M.G., 
Government Botanist, one of its oldest members, and for some 
years its active and honoured patron ; and it further desires that a 
letter of condolence, with a copy of this resolution, be sent to Mrs. 
Wehl, of Millicent, South Australia, as his sole surviving sister, 
and only close relation." 

The resolution was seconded by Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S., who 
endorsed all that Mr. Best had said, and suggested that on the 
occasion of the next exhibition of wild flowers floral wreaths 
should be exhibited, to be afterwards placed on Baron von 
Mueller's grave. Messrs. Luehmann, Barnard, Fielder, and the 
chairman also spoke in kindly remembrance of the late Baron. 
The resolution was then put and agreed to in silence, all 
standing. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 

The president of the Natural History Society, Brisbane, wrote 
conveying resolutions adopted by that society with reference to a 
memorial to the late Baron von Mueller. The matter was 
referred to the committee for report. 

EXCURSION REPORTS. 

Reports of recent Club excursions to Mitcham, Sandringham, 
Ringwood, Dandenong Ranges, and Berwick were furnished by 
the respective leaders — Messrs. G. Coghill, C. French, jun. (two), 



>iyK 



102 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

C. Frost, F.L.S., and C. French, F.L.S. — who reported interesting 
outings, but, as a rule, owing to the extreme dryness of the 
spring, a great scarcity of noteworthy specimens. 

The chairman reported that a practical meeting had been held 
on 26th October, when Mr. W. Stickland gave a demonstration 
on " Desmids, their Study and Classification," which proved 
most instructive to those present. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken, Miss A. Bell and Dr. C. Ryan 
were duly elected members of the Club. 

PAPERS READ. 

1. By Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., entitled "On Some Recent 
Work on the Tertiary Rocks near Melbourne." 

The author gave a brief historical account of the work 
that had been done on the Tertiary rocks near Melbourne, and 
said that Dr. Selwyn's early work in 1854 laid the sure 
foundations on which his successors had built ; he had correctly 
indicated the sequence of the various beds, and for a part of the 
area his map is the only one, on a large scale, that we possess. 
Mention was also made of Aplin and Norman Taylor, Selwyn's 
earliest assistants. The pala^ontological work of Sir Frederick 
M'Coy, and of Professor Tate and others, was touched upon, 
and the corrections made to the geological maps by Brough 
Smyth were alluded to. 

The geological structure of the metropolitan area, as recently 
described before the Royal Society of Victoria by Messrs. Hall 
and Pritchard, was rapidly sketched ; and evidence was given for 
supposing that granite exists over a wide area in the district 
under the tertiary cover. Counting this granite, which is no- 
where exposed, the following sets of rocks occur within ten miles 
of Melbourne : — 1. Estuary beds and raised beaches. 2. Upper 
volcanic. 3. Marine and freshwater miocene. 4. Marine 
eocene. 5. Older volcanic. 6. Lower leaf-beds and brown 
coals. 7. Upper silurian. 8. Granite. 

The quarter sheets of the Geological Survey, sections and 
sketches, were exhibited in illustration of the remarks. 

Mr. G. Sweet, F.G.S., questioned the correctness of the 
conclusions arrived at by Mr. Hall, especially with reference to 
the sections exposed on the Moonee Ponds Creek, between 
Ascot Vale and Brunswick. 

Mr. J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., Acting Curator of the Melbourne 
Herbarium, read the first of a series of articles, entitled 
" Reliquiae Muellerianse : Descriptions of New Australian Plants 
in the Melbourne Herbarium," in which he described a new 
Acacia, A. Ti/soni, from the Upper Murchison River, Western 
Australia. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 103 



NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Rev. W. Fielder gave some further particulars with reference 
to the life- history of the Fluke embryo, which he had noted as 
remaining in snails in the same stage for more than six months. 

EXHIBITS. 

By Mr. C. French, F.L.S. — Amblyomis Macgregori, n. sp. 
(malej, Macgregor's Bovver Bird from New Guinea; Chlamy- 
dodera Orientalis (female), Large Bower Bird from N. Queensland ; 
also, a snake, Furina bicucidlata, Two-hooded Furina, from the 
Mallee, Victoria. By Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S. — Plants from the 
Wimmera, forwarded by Mr. F. Reader, Eremophila gibbosifolia 
and Goodenia amplexus, new for N.W. Victoria ; also, Sjjergularia 
media (introduced). By Mr. J. Gabriel — Nest of White-backed 
Grow-Shrike, Gymnorhina leuconota, partly built of wire, and taken 
off a stone-wall at Werribee. By Mr. J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S. — 
Acacia Tysoni (n. sp.), from Upper Murchison River, W.A. ; 
Boronia alata, Sol., from Endeavour River, Queensland 
(Persieh) ; and B. subsessilis, Bentham, from near Lake Lefroy, 
W.A. (J. D. Batt). By Mr. C. M. Maplestone.— Orchids, 
Pterostylis curta (with two flowers on stem), P. mutica, and 
P. rufa, from Eltham. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



BOX HILL BIRDS IN JULY, 1896. 

By Robert Hall. 

(Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 10th August, 1896.^ 

While on the weekly rambles, which are so beneficial to one's 
health, during last month I had occasion to notice that spring 
signs are early this year, and have been noticeable on many sides. 
Nature favoured the botanist with its tiny grass-lily (Wurmbea 
dioica) as early as 5th of July, at the quiet, though once 
prominent, watering place, Altona, and I daresay our botanists 
could tell us of similar early finds elsewhere. 

That beautiful creature of the air, the Welcome Swallow 
(Hirundo neoxena), was again content, on account of a second 
moderately mild season, to remain with us, although the rainfall 
and low temperature of last month must have been rather pro- 
nounced for it. 

In March last the birds assembled in hundreds in Elizabeth- 
street, City, and I was inclined to conclude one contingent was 
preparing to make a journey. These birds settled on the 
projecting mouldings of the third floor of a five-storied building, 
each uttering a single note, which collectively constituted a din 
of weak voices. In this month there are three features observable 



104 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



about these birds. Firstly, that they are combative. One 
pair for several minutes fought while on the wing ; having 
ascended to a high altitude a downward chase followed, when 
they appeared as comet-like objects floating rapidly through the 
air, chattering all the time. Secondly, that the male is a vocalist 
with a considerable amount of ability, for if the sun be shining, as 
you know it often enough does at this time in this bright country 
of ours, a strain of music continuous for minutes is produced 
while it rests upon a post or other suitable object. As it now 
wishes to choose a partner for next month it must needs be 
busy with the duty of the season. Thirdly, that owing to the 
amount of moisture regularly falling upon the ground they find 
part of their sustenance there. As they " float " above the short 
grass the little body assumes an ovate form, and the tail feathers 
become lowered. The short legs prohibit them from standing 
anywhere other than on a flat surface, and it is not unusual to 
have them pleasantly rise from the asphalt path as you approach. 
Swallows gather moths and other insects from the grass as they 
rise, noiselessly hovering within a few inches, and at times 
appearing motionless. 

On the 3rd of the month I was interested in watching fourteen 
swallows skimming the surface of the local reservoir. This was at 
4.45 p.m., and soon the active flock became twenty-three, after 
which the number quickly reached seventy. The arrivals all 
came from the south, and still continued until the number totalled 
about two hundred in thirty minutes from the arrival of the first 
group. They arrived in companies of from twelve to eighteen. 
The sun was brightly setting and the weather mild. The 
scene above the artificial lake was truly a pretty one, with the 
distant birds of apparently small proportions and light colour, 
while those in the foreground were large and dark, all gliding in 
a circular form until one almost imagined the whole scene was in 
revolution. The flock left at 5.30 p.m., as the light faded, and 
all occurred as in an instant, and I was left to contemplate, with 
only a faint idea that they had moved northwards to their usual 
roosting-place in a group of timber. 

The cuckoos as a whole did not leave our shores, and I am 
inclined to consider this as a sign that we have had a mild autumn 
and winter. I heard and saw either the Bronze or Narrow-billed 
Bronze Cuckoo on the 2nd July at Altona, while the first egg of 
the former was observed in this district on the 22nd in a nest 
of Acanthiza pyrrhopygia, one of the many species of the foster 
parents of this group. That this Acanthiza should thus early lay 
its eggs and be so quickly accommodated with a stranger's egg 
shows further the dependency of the latter and watchfulness 
bestowed by it. The Acanthiza having changed its month for 
egg-laying, the cuckoo follows suit. The cuckoo is not yet heard 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 105 

as it will be when the main body arrives, and when pairing gener- 
ally sets in. The question arises, What advantage will this cuckoo 
derive from having remained upon the mainland throughout the 
winter, and its early laying ? 

The approach of spring has already affected the Magpie, 
Gymnorhina tibicen, as it has shown a haste in erecting its nest, 
and one was complete on the 26th June, while that of a second 
pair was noted on the 23rd July. 

The Little Brown Acanthiza, A. pusilla, thought it could un- 
observed, on the 19th, complete its dome structure, and in most 
cases it could have done so, but in this particular one either it 
or I had entered upon a domain that we each knew something 
about, for it has been for years back the resort of my pleasant 
Sunday afternoons. This nest is therefore under the direct con- 
trol of the builders, as far as the writer is concerned. 

For seasons previous to this one the Magpie Lark, Grallina 
picata, has visited us only in pairs, and then few and far between. 
They came just before the Wood Swallows retired, and what the 
latter left the former have been attentive to, preferring those 
kinds of creeping things that are found in damp places. This 
so-called Mud Lark is greatly the life of the place, its " pe-wit " 
always announcing its approach when on the wing. The charm 
of the bird is best exhibited when gracefully walking by the green 
banks of the creeks or shallow ponds, but the " faery " form 
peculiar to it is lost as the gentle creature leaves the earth for 
higher fields, when its flap and heavy flight are totally different to 
what one would expect from its manners upon the moist ground, 
where its black and white plumage affords a most agreeable 
contrast. 

" Blue Bonnets," which you may know better as Superb 
Warblers or Blue Wrens', Malurus cyaneus, are now becoming 
true to their colours, for on the 18th and 21st I secured three 
skins of males completing their change, and nearly metamorphosed 
as far as the feathers are concerned. All that is required is the 
final burst of blue, which lies in " buds " carefully hidden beneath 
the earlier matured feathers. This is earlier than in the past 
three years, according to my limited notes. 

Exhibited upon the table this evening are some dozen skins of 
birds, procured during several seasons, which show the progress 
of their spring dress. The specimen showing earliest signs was 
obtained on the 31st, having a blue tail, a few blue coverts about 
the spurious wing, and a single blue feather at the anterior end of 
the forehead. Beneath the regular layer of grey feathers in the 
lumbar region is one of glossy blue-black, quite ready to serve 
their purpose as soon as the sombre tier above will moult. A 
second example shows the same characters, but with additional 
frontal blues. A third has a few blue plumes in addition on the 



106 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

usual lateral positions on the head. Other specimens show 
irregular blues in the regions set apart for the full growth of this 
distinguishing mark in the one sex. There are fully developed 
and young males abroad now without any reserve. 

The imported Starling is a gregarious bird, which has of its 
own free will lately introduced itself to this district. Slowly, but 
surely, has it wended its way through Hawthorn from the city, 
and taken up its lodgings amongst those houses convenient to 
fields worth while living near. In many respects this sturdy 
invader is kin to the Minah, and it is only a matter of time when 
its connection with the Game Act will need further consideration. 
This species assembles in flocks of from fifty to a hundred in 
number, with a sentry posted on a tree top for the welfare of the 
community. 

We have just had two days set apart in order to the complete 
overthrow ot the Sparrow, and this is the memorable event of the 
month to them. On the first Saturday phosphorized wheat was 
distributed, which greatly shocked this wily finch, but, like the 
proverbial cat, it came out of the action unharmed. The follow- 
ing Saturday, however, strychnined grain showed a disastrous 
result. I caged one little bird that had dined on the phosphorized 
wheat at 12.30, and by 5.30, with only an hour of spasms, it flew 
away quite briskly. Sparrows have had many champions of their 
cause, and we know them to be friendly with city people, but 
there is an ever returning tale of woe if the name is mentioned 
beyond the populated centres. 

Very strange, I take it to be, was it to see two occupied nests in 
May of this year, but these are not the only birds that have been 
erratic in the winter of 1896, for a Welcome Swallow was building 
on the 20th April, and Mr. C. French, jun., has told me of a nest 
of the Geobasileus chryssorhcea placed in the Botanical Gardens, 
containing young, as early (or as late) as the first week of June. 

Our largest stranger is the Grey Crow-Shrike, Strejiera cunei- 
caudacuta, which has been with us in twos or threes since the 
latter part of summer, but not so near the city on the eastern side 
for years. Insect food is found below the excreta of cattle, and 
within or beneath the bark of our larger trees. 

The Collared Sparrowhawk, Accipiter cirrhocephalus (Vieill.), 
and the unmatured form of the Australian Goshawk, Astur 
approximans, V. and H., a young friend secured for me in the early 
part of the month, so that they are still in the locality. A 
neighbour jokingly compared the flight of the former bird to 
lightning when it is acting well. Certainly its flight is exceedingly 
rapid amongst the foliage of the timber, and the amazing rate of 
flight is well known to the small birds, whom nature has taught to 
immediately seek the higher atmosphere and broader field for 
protection if they are pursued while upon the wing. When the 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 107 

chase begins the sparrow or other lesser bird will work upward as 
quickly as possible, using all its agility to " dodge,'"' when the 
hawk frequently resumes its previous course in search of other 
food not so wary. All my specimens were obtained while hover- 
ing above the poultry yard, which shows that they were partial to 
game. 

Unless quite familiar with the stages of both species there is 
sometimes a shade of difficulty in consigning them to their exact 
positions. Two characters are very definite. According to Sharpe 
Accipiter cirrhocephahcs has the middle toe without claw more 
than twice the length of the culmen, while Astur approximans has 
the same toe one and one-half times the length of the culmen, 
and on Dr. Ramsay's authority length of tail, Accipiter cirrhoce- 
phalus, is 7^ inches, while length of tail, Astur approximans, is 
male 10 inches, female 8^2 inches. 

The first of the month brought me a female specimen of the 
Striated Reed Lark, Calamanthus fuliginosus, which is unusual for 
Box Hill. This is the only case in which, to my knowledge, the 
district has produced this species, and the credit lies with my 
spaniel, who is ever faithful in procuring birds of this nature. The 
odour of the bird caused the dog to set it, when it was taken alive ; 
it was then caged, only, however, to die by the morning. If at any 
time a member would care to study the habits of this bird he may 
successfully do so west of the mouth of the Kororoit Creek, 
Williamstown, where they are very plentiful. 



GEOLOGICAL NOTES ON THE TOOMBULLUP GOLD- 
FIELD AND ADJACENT COUNTRY. 
By A. E. Kitson. 

(Read before Field Naturalists'' Club of Victoria, \Atli September, 1896.) 
The tract of country embracing the above goldfield lies near the 
centre of the county of Delatite, in the North-Eastern District, 
about 40 miles south-east of Benalla. It consists for the greater 
part of an undulating plateau, chiefly of quartz porphyry, with an 
average elevation of about 2,000 feet ; is bounded on the west 
by Holland's branch of the Broken River, and on the east by the 
Fifteen-Mile Creek. Several minor streams, such as Middle, 
Ryan's, Watchbox, and Sam's Creeks run through it in a 
northerly direction, the first into the Fifteen-Mile, and the 
others ultimately into Holland's River. In its lower portion, 
where it has a westerly course through wide alluvial flats, Ryan's 
Creek forms the boundary between the trappean area and a 
belt of indurated silurian rocks, consisting of black and light- 
coloured slates and sandstones, some of them metamorphosed 
into lydianite, hornstone, and quartzite by intrusions of granite 
and porphyry, evidently a northerly continuation of the Toom- 



108 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

bullup rocks along the divide between Ryan's and Fifteen-Mile 
Creeks. It is along this ridge that the Benalla to Middle Creek 
track runs. Ryan's Creek debouches into the flats from a narrow 
gorge over a series of small falls, which allow the character of the 
rock to be distinctly seen as a flesh-coloured, reddish-yellow, and 
greenish-grey quartz porphyry. The first two varieties decompose 
into a light yellow and white clay, and the last to a distinct brick 
red, which forms the rich soil of this district. In the darker 
varieties especially the alteration of the felspar may be clearly 
noticed, and extends for about a quarter of an inch from the 
surface. Dispersed through the lighter varieties are small patches 
of the common (iron-alumina) garnet. These probably exist in 
the others also, which contain besides small crystals of biotite and 
radiating clusters of black tourmaline. An interesting feature of 
all the rock is the peculiar semi-crystallized character of the 
quartz, many of the pieces terminating in well-defined hexagonal 
pyramids. For some distance along the divide the rocks are of 
a markedly fragmental character. The fragments are dark- 
coloured and embedded in a matrix of fine-grained dark grey 
and white felspar porphyry. In other places again, as at Puzzle 
Gully, it may be called a grey granite, since there is a con- 
siderable quantity of biotite present, mostly in small crystals. 
The felspar here is very glassy, and until considerably weathered 
is not easily distinguished from the quartz. 

The auriferous deposits being worked to any extent are at 
Puzzle Gully, Webb's and Middle Creeks. The former place is 
an exceedingly interesting one, and embraces a length of some 
three-quarters of a mile. On the gentle slope from the south 
into Dogwood Creek, a tributary of Ryan's, there is an extensive 
series of shafts from 5 to 16 feet deep, following numerous small 
"leads" varying from 6 inches to 2 feet thick. The general 
trend of these "leads" is in a north-easterly direction. They 
contain fairly water-worn pebbles of quartz and the local rock, 
with occasional large boulders of the latter. Overlying this is a 
deposit of red loam from 8 to 12 feet thick, with decomposing 
fragments of the surrounding rocks and also small angular pieces 
of quartz. The " washdirt," chiefly of quartz fragments and red 
clay, averages only a few inches in thickness, and lies on a pipe- 
clay bottom. The gold is coarse, shotty, and little worn, and 
the whole deposit indicates a very small amount of transportation. 
While examining one of the shafts, a two and a half pennyweight 
piece was picked out of the wash and handed up for inspection. 
It was found on the lower side of a large boulder. Across the 
creek, on a small rise on the northern slope, are great quantities 
of gravels almost wholly made up of quartz pebbles, and lying at 
an elevation little lower than the highest portions of the plateau. 
This area is held by a co-operative party, who have driven a 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 109 

tunnel into the hill for 800 feet along the pipeclay " bottom," 
and have sunk two shafts, one of which was " bottomed " at 95 
feet. No opportunity was afforded to get down either shaft, but 
it appears that in sinking they passed through a surface covering 
of several feet of red clay, then from 50 to 80 feet of quartz 
gravels and bands of clay. Some of these gravels are loose, 
while others consist of a ferruginous conglomerate difficult to 
work in. Both are stated to be auriferous, and differ from those 
on the other side by containing gem stones also, such as 
sapphires, zircons, and topazes. The mining appliances are very 
simple. All the hauling is done by the windlass, and most of 
the washing by the dish, though there is a public puddler erected 
on the creek, which will no doubt be utilized should the tunnel 
mine be opened up and " blocking out" commenced. The 
drawback on these workings is the scarcity of water, as the creek 
is only a small one. The ground is dry, and on the south slope 
easily worked till approaching the present level of the creek, 
when it naturally becomes more or less wet. The striking feature 
of this gully is the remarkable contrast between the deposits on 
each side of the creek. It is very probable that the miners on 
the south side are working on a "false bottom," and deeper 
sinking may disclose the existence of underlying gravels similar 
to those on the north. This would explain the apparently 
peculiar geological features of the gully. 

Three miles from here, in a direct line east, lie the Webb's 
Creek workings. They differ greatly from those at Puzzle Gully. 
The lead is single and well defined, following approximately the 
course of the present stream, and consequently, owing to the 
water, mining operations are carried on at a greater disadvantage. 
Altogether the "lead" has been worked for a distance of about 
a quarter of a mile. It is from 2 inches to 2 feet thick, con- 
sisting principally of pebbles of quartz, granite, quartz porphyry, 
and schorl rock, overlain by from 5 to 10 feet of stiff bluish 
white and grey clay, with numerous rounded and sub-angular 
pieces of these rocks distributed through it. Many of these 
pebbles are very interesting. At first sight they appear much 
like a conglomerate, but on close examination are seen to consist 
almost exclusively of schorl and quartz. The pebbly appearance 
is due to patches of silica, either absolutely pure or mixed with 
small crystals of schorl, which impart to it a grey colour. The 
silica occurs in various states — sometimes as a white powder ; 
again, in the usual hexagonal prisms with pyramids ; but more 
frequently semi-crystallized. The schorl is in hexagonal prisms, 
chiefly single, but sometimes arranged in radiating clusters. 
They are thin, and range up to three-quarter inch in length. 
Other pebbles, again, are almost wholly composed of powdery 
quartz, with cavities lined with perfectly sharp-edged and colour- 



110 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

less crystals of the same mineral. The "wash" contains various 
kinds of gem stones, such as corundum (with its varieties, 
sapphire and Oriental emerald), topaz, zircon (with its varieties, 
hyacinth and jargon), besides pleonaste, schorl, rock crystal, 
and menaccanite. Many of the gems show the crystalline 
faces distinctly. Among these is a perfect octahedron of 
pleonaste and a sapphire in the form of a double hexagonal 
pyramid, broken towards the apices. Many of the sapphires and 
red zircons (hyacinths) are of good colour, free from flaws, and 
weigh up to 2^2 carats. The Oriental emeralds are in much 
larger pieces, some of them weighing 5 carats, and are of a 
light green colour, but a good deal flawed. Even since 
cutting the gems reduces them by about 75 per cent., it will be 
seen that there is a commercial value attached to the stones 
found here. The miners, however, are too busily engaged in 
getting the gold, and utterly neglect the gems. 

The gold in this creek is very fine and scaly, quite unlike 
that at Puzzle Gully ; in fact, some of it is so light as to float 
away with even a moderate " head " of water. This renders it 
necessary to use mercury as an amalgamating agent when finally 
" cleaning up." The method of mining, with one exception, 
which is by a tunnel, is the " paddock " system, with puddling 
and box sluicing. Owing to the tenacious character of the clay, 
derived from the decomposed felspar, which has percolated from 
above, the washdirt has to be thoroughly puddled and the larger 
stones carefully cleaned before being put through the boxes, 
which are longer than usual on account of the extreme lightness of 
the gold. Only the washdirt is sluiced, the overlying clay being 
simply thrown to one side. The workings are in a rather oval- 
shaped, shallow basin, and the sinking gets deeper towards the head 
of the creek, as far as has yet been proved. The claims at this end 
are so much troubled with water that in the richest one operations 
had been suspended owing to want of suitable baling appliances. 

The workings on Middle Creek, about half a mile still further 
to the east, are of the same nature. 

Apart from these three creeks very little work has been done 
in any of the others, excepting Stringybark Creek, where a few 
miners are still working. It need hardly be doubted that 
careful prospecting towards the head of many of the streams as 
yet untried would reveal the presence of other " leads," and 
more discoveries may confidently be looked forward to if the 
area is given anything like a fair trial. At the present time the 
field supports upwards of 120 miners, some of whom are making 
fair wages and a few doing well. It is computed that altogether 
about 3,000 ozs. of gold have been obtained. 

A few remarks may be made as to the probable origin of the 
gold. Throughout the whole area are found numerous veins and 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. Ill 

small reefs of vitreous and opaque quartz. One reef in particular, 
about 3 feet wide, outcrops near the source of Cherry-tree Creek. 
It has a north-west strike, and consists of white, opaque, cellular, 
and partly ferruginous quartz. Several pieces were cursorily 
examined, but no gold found. Again, at Webb's Creek a large 
lump of ferruginous and highly cavernous quartz was noticed, the 
crystals in the cavities having a silicious coating. It was not at 
all worn, and evidently came from some reef near. 

The origin of the gold is a question of great interest. Whether 
it has been derived from the reefs running through the main rock 
masses, from reefs associated with diorite dykes, or been trans- 
ported from the higher lands at the heads of the main streams, 
can only be settled by further extended and close observation. 
Though the scaly character of the gold in Webb's Creek appears 
to point towards a granitic matrix, still, as reefs of the nature of 
those noticed have usually proved to be barren, it is not likely 
that they are the matrices. The character and association of the 
gold in the southern portion of Puzzle Gully favours the second 
theory, since the material does not show indication of much 
attrition. As regards the mass of quartz gravels on the northern 
side of that gully and the presence of the more valuable gems in 
Webb's and Middle Creek workings the weight of evidence seems 
to point to a distant origin. As similar gem stones are found 
in various parts of the colony and appear to be traceable to older 
basaltic matrices as mentioned by Mr. (now Professor) Ulrich in 
his " Contributions to the Mineralogy of Victoria," it is probable 
that an outlier of this rock exists somewhere nearer the source of 
the streams. 

RELIQUIAE MUELLERIAN^E : 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AUSTRALIAN PLANTS IN 

THE MELBOURNE HERBARIUM. 

By J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., Acting Curator. 

(Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 16th Nov., 1896.) 

Owing principally to the indefatigable energy of the late lamented 
Baron von Mueller, the flora of Australia in its main features has 
become known even from the remotest parts. Only very rarely is 
a new species now discovered among phanerogamous plants, 
although a good deal remains to be done to elucidate the vari- 
ability of species, to complete the description of imperfectly 
understood plants and to further trace their geographic range. 
The vast Melbourne herbarium that our late patron brought 
together contains some still undetermined forms, which among 
his multifarious duties he could not find time to work up, and I 
propose to undertake their investigation, and publish the results 
from time to time in the Victorian Naturalist. 

This evening I beg to submit a new species of Acacia from the 



112 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Upper Murchison River, Western Australia, where it was collected 

by Mr. Isaac Tyson. 

Acacia Tvsoni, Luehmann (section, uninerves brevifolioe). 

Branchlets nearly terete, densely tomentose ; phyllodia oblong, 
slightly oblique, with a small hooked point, narrowed at the base, 
about i inch long, 3 to 4 lines broad, ashy-grey, covered with a 
fine silky pubescence, one-nerved with thickened margins, the 
lateral veins concealed, without marginal glands. Peduncles 
solitary, fully as long as the phyllodia, bearing each a globular 
head of 10 or 12 rather large flowers, mostly 5-merous. Calyx 
turbinate, glabrous, about one-third as long as the corolla ; petals 
smooth, connate to above the middle. Pod straight, hard, and 
woody, very turgid (broken, so that the length cannot be stated), 
about 3 lines broad over the seeds, much contracted between 
them. Seed nearly 3 lines long, 2 lines broad and almost as 
thick, but laterally compressed, the funicle short, not folded, 
thickened into a fleshy aril. 

Nearest to A. Meissneri and its allies. 

On limestone soil in the vicinity of Mount Narryer, Upper 
Murchison River, Western Australia ; Isaac Tyson. 



The Extinct Phillip Island Parrot. — A correspondent 
in the Zoologist states that a hitherto unrecorded specimen of the 
Phillip Island Parrot (Nestor productus ) has been found in a 
collection of birds belonging to the city of Birmingham, now kept 
in the Museum at Aston Hall. As there are only about a dozen 
specimens of this now extinct bird in existence, any museum 
possessing one may be considered fortunate. These Nestor 
Parrots of which the Kaka (N. meridionalis) and the Kea ( N. 
notabilis) still survive in the unsettled districts of New Zealand, 
show a considerable resemblance in several points to the birds of 
prey, and are probably survivals of a primeval race of parrots 
that existed before the two families had so widely diverged as at 
present from some common ancestor. A figure of the Nestor 
productus is given by Prof. Newton in his article on birds in the 
Encyclopaedia Britannica (9th edition), page 735, where he 
remarks : — " The last known living specimen, according to 
information supplied to me by Mr. Gould, was seen by that 
gentleman in a cage in London about the year 185 1." [The Phillip 
Island after which this bird is named is a small islet near Nor- 
folk Island. Is there a specimen of this parrot in any Australian 
Museum 1 — Ed. Victorian Naturalist.] 

We are pleased to learn that Mr. J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., 
who was for nearly thirty years associated with the late Baron 
von Mueller in the Government Botanist's Department as his 
principal assistant, has been appointed Curator of the Melbourne 
Herbarium. 



THE 

|J t jc t ov x a tt |t a t xt v a 1 1 1* 

Vol. XIII.— No. 9. DECEMBER, 1896. No. 157. 

(PUBLISHED JANUARY 7, 1S97.) 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, 14th December, 1896. One 
of the vice-presidents, Mr. J. Shephard, occupied the chair, and 
some fifty members were present. 

REPORTS. 

A report of the Club excursion to Ringwood, on Saturday? 
21st November, was read by the leader, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard; 
who mentioned that a fair collection of beetles had been made» 
some 12 species of Buprestidse and about 8 species of Longicorns, 
including Hesthesis singulata and H. plorata, being obtained. 

Mr. J. Shephard gave a report of the excursion to Heidelberg 
on Saturday, 12th December, when amongst the specimens col- 
lected was a Rotifer which will probably prove to be a new 
species. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS. 

On a ballot being taken Mr. C. F. Belcher, Signor Bragato, Mr. 
J. C. Neil, Mr. E. Rutter, Mr. J. H. Rutter, and Mr. T. Scott 
were duly elected members of the Club. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

The chairman drew attention to a framed photograph of the 
late Baron von Mueller which had been presented to the Club by 
Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S., and on the motion of Mr. D. Best, seconded 
by Mr. H. T. Tisdall, a vote of thanks was accorded to Mr. 
Frost for his valuable gift. 

PAPERS. 

1. By Mr. R. Hall, entitled " Notes on the Plumage of 
Robins." The author recorded his observations on the plumage 
of the Flame-breasted and Scarlet-breasted Robins, giving it as 
his opinion that these robins do not attain their full plumage for 
at least two or three years. 

In the discussion which took place Mr. A. Coles said he 
agreed with Mr. Hall's observations. 

2. By Mr. O. A. Sayce, entitled " Karyokinetic Cell Divisions, 
with Examples of Various Stages." The author briefly explained 
the structure of the cell, pointing out the importance of the 



ilS^ 



114 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



nucleus, and said that there were only three known methods 
of nuclear division : — i. Direct nuclear division. 2. Endogenous 
nuclear division (Hertwig) ; and 3 (which is by far the 
commonest in animal and vegetable life, viz., Karyokinesis. 
This was explained in detail, and methods for microscopical 
demonstration explained, as also suitable material for examination. 
At the close of the evening micro, slides prepared by the author 
were shown, which clearly illustrated some of the stages in cell- 
division. 

In the discussion which followed Messrs. H. T. Tisdall, T. S. 
Hall, M.A., J. Shephard, and G. Coghill took part. 

3. By Mr. J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., entitled " Notes on New 
Australasian Acacias." The author described two new species of 
Acacia, A. palustris and A. Cuthbertsoni, from Western Australia. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Mr. J. A. Kershaw contributed some notes on the vast 
numbers of the two large Cicadas, Cicada mcerens and Cydochila 
Australasice, now occurring in most districts about Melbourne, 
especially at Black Flats, near Dandenong. 

Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., called the attention of members to the 
fact that some fossils had recently been discovered in the pre- 
Cambrian Rocks of South Australia, being the oldest fossils 
known in Australia. 

EXHIBITS. 

The following were the principal exhibits : — By Mr. F. G. A. 
Barnard. — Coleoptera from Ringwood excursion. By Mr. A. 
Coles. — Birds' eggs from New Zealand — viz., King Penguin, 
Crested Penguin, Tufted Penguin, Royal Penguin, and Black-eye- 
browed Albatross ( Diomedea melanophys). By Mr. C. French, jun. 
— Eggs of the following rare birds — viz., Little Eagle and Black- 
backed Superb Warbler, from Central Australia. By Mr. W. H. F. 
Hill. — Eggs, larva, pupae, and imago of the butterfly Iahnenus 
7nyrsilus, from near Gordons. By Mr. J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S. — 
Two species of new Acacias from Western Australia. By Mr. F. 
Reader, the following plants new for N.W. Victoria : — Stipa 
micrantha and Cyperus eragrostis. By Mr. O. A. Sayce. — 
Microscopic slides, in illustration of paper. By Mr. J. Shephard 
— Mounted Rotifer from Heidelberg, probably a new species. 
By Mr. G. E. Shepherd. — White-bellied Sea Eagle, from Lang 
Lang ; Jardine's Harrier, from Somerville ; Garrulous Honey- 
eater (albino), from Bittern ; eggs of Little Penguin, from Cat 
Bay, Victoria ; eggs of Yellow-breasted Robin, showing peculiar 
markings, collected at Somerville ; and eggs of Spotted Night- 
jar, from Queensland. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 115 



NOTES ON PLUMAGE OF ROBINS. 

By Robert Hall. 

(Read be/ore Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, lith December, 1896.^ 

The regular " red-breasted " robins arrived at Box Hill this 
year during the third week of April. Of the two species the 
Flame-breasted (Petrceca Leggii) as a whole were later than the 
Scarlet-breasted (P. phcenicia). During the early part of August 
the flocks dispersed altogether, leaving the open grounds, and 
silently performed their parental duties amongst the timber, as if 
there were no such birds as robins in the district. These robins 
come here without notice, and male birds of Petrmca Leggii to 
the number of twenty were noticed on the 25th June last. I 
wish to place before you this evening the question of robins and 
their plumage, in order that our observers, more so than our 
collectors, may put aside a portion of their time for its con- 
sideration and this class of work generally. 

Mr. Gould in his " Birds of Australia," vol. iii., literature to 
plate 7, has given his ultimatum regarding the maturity of the 
plumage of the Scarlet-breasted Robin (P. phcenicia) — viz., that 
it is concluded in the first year. The only instance quoted is of 
a male bird shot during a February in nearly full dress but with 
signs of youth. To this theory I do not wish to raise any objection, 
but, to encourage a further research into the matter, I would 
state that the skin of an unmatured male was received by me on 
20th August, 1896, from the Heytesbury Forest, which was 
certainly not a nestling of this year, and had no further signs of 
development before its next moult the following year. This bird 
was shot without any idea of its real value, and is very much 
like the female of the Flame-breasted Robin to an eye un- 
educated in this particular groove. The following are its 
principal characteristics : — Forehead, clear white ; the whole 
length of the dorsal portion, dark-grey, tending to black ; throat, 
similar to back ; breast, clearly flushed with red. 

As Mr. Gould has quoted his strong opinion upon one bird, 
and I have ventured to faithfully follow in his footsteps, a 
question has arisen for somebody's consideration as to how this 
robin conducts itself throughout a two years' course which it 
may probably take to complete its suit of feathers. 

With the other species, the Flame-breasted Robin, I have been 
annually impressed for seasons past by the appearance of the 
female, which is not smitten with a gorgeous beauty, but with one 
of exceptionally quiet colour. The "British Museum Catalogue," 
vol. iv., page 167, describes the young male as "similar to old 
female, but with an orange instead of vermilion breast." To this 
I would feel disposed to add an intermediate stage, as nothing is 
said of when this maturity is reached — viz., the female of the first 



116 THE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 

year is devoid of the colour that appears in what I consider to 
be a two-year-old bird ; there is no orange on the breasts of 
many birds I have observed closely in July and August, when 
birds of this genus are breeding and have made their moult. 
I have found the brown females to be much more numerous 
than the adult forms, and confirmation of this can generally 
be made where manure hillocks are placed in gardens or 
fields adjacent to timber. There is an example upon the 
table for your inspection. Perhaps some of our members may be 
in a position to prove that these females moult subsequently to 
these months, even though the birds have left the open for the 
covert. 

In the same month (August, 1896) I was surprised to 
find that an apparent female Pink-breasted Robin had for its 
companions solitude and myself, according to the view I felt 
inclined to take after a noiseless twenty minutes' watch. This 
bird certainly chooses a spot where the land lies quiet and the 
creek is sheltered. I could not understand why a female robin 
should be so lonely for so long a time, and I would just as soon 
have watched a Podargus if it had occasionally moved. Upon 
further investigation I found this bird to be an unmatured young 
male of last year's brood, with a faint trace of pink on and just 
above the abdomen ; but daylight was needed, the colour being 
so faint. I take it that this bird had finally moulted for the year, 
but if not it must have been one of a very late brood. The 
under portion of the feet was only half as bright as that of a female 
obtained fourteen days previous. If in the killing of these birds 
I have offended an observer, the only recompense I can give is 
this short paper, the loan of the skins, and the dead bodies for 
dissection, if such is his or her wish, and if any member of our 
club could make use of a variety of bird bodies I would be glad to 
occasionally supply specimens for investigation, and by so doing 
my responsibility in the matter of killing would be greatly reduced. 

A Wimmera correspondent, Mr. J. A. Hill, has carefully 
observed that the Red-capped Robin does not mature until the 
second year. An undeveloped pair has just bred in his district, 
the crown of the head and breast showing very pale red in the 
male, and the same particularly faint in the female. The male is 
on the table this evening. The same field-observer has carefully 
noted that the Hooded Robin breeds before signs of maturity 
appear, and the full livery is not donned in the first year, as with 
some of the robins — for example, the Yellow-breasted Robin, 
noted by Gould, and easily observed each year as an instance. 
In conclusion I would say that these short notes are simply 
offered with the hope that other members of the Club will give a 
little consideration to the question, and favour us with their 
opinions. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 117 



RELIQUl^ MUELLERIANiE : 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AUSTRALIAN PLANTS IN 

THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM, MELBOURNE. 

By J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., Curator. 

{Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, Iteh December, 1896.) 

Acacia Cuthbertsoni, Luehmann (section, Juliflorse rigidulae). 

A shrub of about 10 feet ; branchlets nearly terete, slightly 
tomentose ; phyllodia lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, almost 
straight, narrowed at both ends, with a small oblique point, 
coriaceous, i 1 /, to 2)4 inches long, 2 to 4 lines broad, ashy-grey 
from an extremely fine appressed silky pubescence, with about 
5 to 8 sometimes hardly conspicuous veins. Spikes mostly in 
pairs, shortly pedunculate, cylindrical, about ^ inch long, not 
very dense. Flowers mostly 5-merous. Calyx hardly one-quarter 
as long as the corolla, very thin, with lanceolar slightly ciliate 
lobes ; petals smooth, free to the base. Pod hard and woody, 
turgid, gently curved, 3 to 4 inches long, )4 inch broad over the 
seeds, contracted between them. Seeds longitudinal, broadly 
ovate, 3 to 3)4 lines long, turgid; funicle short, thin, the second 
fold dilated into a boat-shaped aril. 

Western Australia, between the rivers Murchison and Gascoyne ; 
W. Cuthbertson. Near Mount Narryer ; Isaac Tyson. 

The phyllodia are in shape similar to those of A. Kempeana, 
but with less numerous veins ; the fruit is quite different. 

Acacia palustris, Luehmann (section, Juliflorse stenophyllae). 

Glabrous : branchlets terete, or nearly so. Phyllodia linear- 
subulate, stout and rigid, terete, pungent, with fine but rather 
prominent nerves, 3 to 6 inches long. Spikes mostly in pairs, 
shortly pedunculate, dense, ovoid or oblong, about 3 lines long. 
Flowers mostly 4-merous. Sepals spathulate, bract-like, about 
half as long as the corolla. Petals thin, smooth, soon separating. 
Pod straight, coriaceous, turgid, 4 to 5 inches long, about 4 lines 
broad over the seeds, much contracted between them. Seeds 
about 2j4 lines long, 2 lines broad, very turgid, laterally flattened, 
encircled by a conspicuous raised line, attached by a small ovate 
arillus without any filiform funicle. 

Near A. aciphylla. 

Western Australia, in swampy places on the Upper Murchison 
River ; Isaac Tyson. 



118 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

NOTES ON THE LIFE-HISTORY OF IALMENVS 
MYESILUS, Dbl. 

(Continued from Victorian Naturalist, vol. xii., p. 135.) 

Ovum. — As a result of further acquaintance with this insect, 
Part i. of these notes requires slightly amending as far as the 
deposition of the ova is concerned. They are laid in batches of 
from one to four, usually three, on the young outside twigs of the 
Blackwood, in the angle formed by the leaf and branch. Oc- 
casionally they may be found singly on the dead part of a 
damaged leaf, and more rarely on a large branch. 

The young larvae emerge through an opening cut in the de- 
pressed apex of the egg. 

Larva. — In the young stage the larva is of a greenish-grey 
colour, with head and tergum of first segment polished black, 
cylindrical, with anal segments slightly flattened. A double row 
of hairs extends along the back, and a single row along the 
sides. 

At a later stage the larva approaches to onisciform, the ab- 
dominal and thoracic segments become pencilled with black on 
whitish or yellow, and a double row of oval yellow spots extends 
along the back. The last anal segment is black, with a white 
median band, and the others are mottled reddish brown. 

The adult larva is markedly onisciform, the abdominal segments 
yellowish, pencilled and mottled with black and the yellow spots 
as before. These are not all of the same size or shape, those on 
the 3rd, 5th, 8th, and 9th being usually the most marked. The 
first thoracic tergum is depressed and of a shining black colour, 
the anal segments more flattened than in the earlier stage, but 
coloured similarly. 

The food-plant of these grubs is the Blackwood, clean free- 
grown trees of medium size in sheltered spots being preferred. 
At Beale's Resorvoir, Wallace, the larvae were found in consider- 
able numbers on quite small bushes, three or four feet high. 
They rarely seek any other shelter than that afforded by lightly 
sewing together two leaves along one edge. 

The larvae are always attended by ants— a small black variety 
which elevates the abdomen and runs about excitedly when 
disturbed. It seems likely that the presence of these ants is a 
protection for the larvae. 

The larval stage lasts about a month, from the middle ot 
November to the middle of December. 

Localities : Millbrook, Bolwarrah, Werribee River, and Beale's 
Dam, Wallace.— W. H. F. Hill. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 119 

NOTES. 

Cicadas. — I would like to draw the attention of those 
interested to the great numbers of the two large species of Cicada, 
Cicada mcerens, Germ., and Cyclochila Australaiai, Don., now 
occurring in some of the outlying districts about Melbourne. On 
Saturday afternoon last (28th), while collecting about Black 
Flats and Dandenong I was astonished at the enormous numbers 
of these insects, the males of which kept up such a continuous 
din (their so-called music) as to be positively deafening. The 
black species (Cicada mcerens), however, were by far the most 
plentiful, and I particularly noticed that the two species did not 
occur in the same paddock. In a paddock at Black Flats the 
gum saplings were swarming with the green species (Cyclochila 
Australasias), and the continuous ear-splitting whirring noise, 
which is much louder than that of C. mazrens, was so deafening 
that I was glad to beat a retreat. An interesting description of 
the sound-producing organs of the Cicada is given by Professor 
Haswell in P.L.S. N.S.W., vol. i., 2nd series, p. 489. 

At Dandenong, while hunting in a large paddock, I was 
surprised at the swarms of the black species (C. mairens), which 
(to put it mildly) were in thousands, and which were flying about 
the large eucalypts and sheoaks, or resting on the branches, and 
some occasionally falling to the ground. The peculiar empty 
pupa cases, with the slit down the back through which the imago 
had emerged, were sticking in hundreds on the trunks of the 
trees, and some were noticed from which the imago was just 
emerging. Many of the insects were disabled, and were 
immediately claimed by the ants, which soon covered them. At 
about sunset, when the insects were going to rest, the branches of 
many of the trees were black with them, and on the sheoaks, where 
they could more easily be seen, they were resting one above the 
other right along the branches to the very top. On throwing a stick 
into some of the trees they flew out like a swarm of bees, making 
a dreadful whirring noise, and settling again in the neighbouring 
trees, and still only those which were dislodged by the stick flew 
out, hundreds of others being seen still clinging to the branches. 
As, of course, is pretty generally known, the female deposits her eggs 
in grooves which she cuts in a twig, the young larvae descending 
to the ground, into which they burrow to feed on underground 
roots. The pupae leave the ground and climb up the trunks of 
the nearest trees when the imagos are ready to emerge. During 
the number of years I have been collecting in Victoria I have 
never before known these insects to appear in such enormous 
numbers, although they appear commonly every year. I might 
also mention at the same time seeing a large number of the 
smaller black species, Cicada melanopygia, Germ., which were rest- 
ing on the young gums, acacias, &c, about sunset, and were then 
easily captured. — Jas. A.Kershaw. Windsor, 2nd December, 1896. 



120 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

RECENT PUBLICATIONS. 

A Sketch of the Natural History of Australia, with Some 
Notes on Sport. By F. G. Aflalo, F.R.G.S., F.L.S., &c. 
July, 1896. (Macraillan's Colonial Library.) 3s. 6d. 

This little volume of about 330 pages, as its name implies, 
gives an excellent outline sketch of those forms of animal life 
which are peculiar to our island continent. Though without any 
pretence to be a scientific handbook, it is well worthy of the 
attention of workers in natural history, as giving such an 
excellent grouping of the various creatures dealt with. Thus 
Mammals are treated of in three parts— the Placentals, 
Marsupials, and Monotremes. Birds, under Waterfowl, Wading 
Birds, Perching Birds, Birds of Prey, and Scratchers. Reptiles, 
under Snakes, Lizards, Crocodiles, Tortoises and Turtles, 
Batrachians. Fishes, under which heading a chapter is devoted 
to Angling, principally experiences around Sydney, as Freshwater 
Fish and Sea Fish. Under Invertebrata we have chapters on 
Molluscs, Insects, Spiders and Scorpions, Centipedes, Crustacea, 
and the Ground Floor ; while the Glossary contains the meaning 
of most of the scientific names in the volume. The reader is 
constantly being directed to works of other authors, either in 
support of the writer's remarks or to show the absurd characters 
given to Australian forms of life by early writers. As brief notes 
about, and the scientific names of most of the species mentioned, 
are given, the volume is one which will be found of much service 
to any visitor to our shores who is zoologically inclined. It also 
contains some thirty illustrations, which have the merit of being 
well executed. 
An Introduction to the Study of Mineralogy for 

Australian Readers. By F. M. Krause, F.G.S. 1896. 

Geo. Robertson and Co., Melbourne. 8vo, cloth, 6s. 

This volume of some 350 pages has been designed primarily 
for use as a text-book for students, but it will also be found 
extremely useful to mineralogists as a work of reference. 
It is divided into two parts — viz., Systematic and Descriptive 
Mineralogy. The first part takes the reader through Crystal- 
lography, Physical Properties, Optical Properties, Chemical 
Properties, Distribution, and Classification. The second part 
deals with 244 distinct minerals, as well as their more important 
varieties, giving such particulars as structure, hardness, specific 
gravity, colour, usual form of occurrence, chemical composition, 
and distribution, under which is given, firstly, all the principal 
Australian localities, then the chief occurrences in other parts of 
the world ; and, finally, in the cases of economic minerals, notes 
on their values and uses. The work includes a copious index of 
all minerals, &c, mentioned. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 121 

A CATALOGUE OF VICTORIAN HETEROCERA. 

By Oswald B. Lower, F.E.S. 

Part XXII. 

775. Phlceopola confusella, Walk. (CEcophora confusella, Walk., 
B. M. Cat., 682 ; Phlceopola confusella, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 355, 1892). 
Melbourne, Gisborne. 

*776. P. synchyta, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 355, 1892). 
Trafalgar. 

777. P. banausa, Meyr. (loc. cit., 356, 1892). 
Melbourne, Fernshaw. 

*778. P. exarcha, Meyr. (loc. cit., 358, 1892). 
Melbourne. 

779. P. pyrgonota, Meyr. (loc. cit., 1594, 1888). 
Melbourne, Gisborne. 

*78o. P. micropis, Meyr. (loc. cit., 1,593, 1888). 
Melbourne. 

SPHYRELATA. Meyr. 

7S1. S. indecorella, Walk. (Cryptolechia indecorella, Walk., 
B. M. Cat., 764; (Ecophora amotella, 16, 1,034; 
Sphyrelata indecorella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W., 362, 1892). 
Stawell, Casterton, Melbourne. 

PILOPREPES. Meyr. 

♦782. P. anassa, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1,597, 1888). 
Melbourne, Kewell. 

^783. P. cemulella, Walk. ((Ecophora, ozmulella, Walk., B. M. 
Cat., 697 ; Piloprepes cemulella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N.S.W., 366, 1892). 
Richmond. 

*784. P. aristocratica, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1,598, 
1888). 
Fernshaw. 

^785. P. antidoxa, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1,599, 
1888). 

PYRGOPTILA. Meyr. 

TRACHYPEPLA. Meyr. 

MESOLECTA. Meyr. 

*786. M. psacasta, Meyr. (Proc, Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 371, 1892). 
Melbourne. 



122 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

TALANTIS. Meyr. 
NEPHOGENES. Meyr. 

*7Sj. N. eunephela, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 374, 
1892). 
Cheltenham. 

*788. N. orescoa, Meyr. (loc. cit., 376, 1892). 
Gisborne. 

*789- N. protorthra, Meyr. (loc. cit., 378, 1892). 
Gisborne. 

790. N. axiota, Meyr. (loc. cit., 1,604, 1888). 
Warragul. 

ANTIDICA. Meyr. 

791. A. pilipes, Butler (Latometus pilipes, Butler, Ann. Mag. 

Nat. Hist., 102, 1882 ; Antidica eriomorpha, Meyr., 
Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 382, 1892). 
Gisborne, Melbourne, &c. 

792. A. barysoma, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 383, 1892). 
Near Melbourne. 

PHILOBOTA. Meyr. 

793. P. Arabella, Newman (CEcophora arabella, Newra., Tr. 

Ent. Soc. Lond., iii., N.S., 296, pi. xviii., 4 ; 
Philobota arabella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 
No. x. — (Ecophoridai, 7). 
Gisborne and Melbourne. 

*794. P. biophora, Meyr. (loc. cit., 8). 
Melbourne. 

795. P. chrysopotama, Meyr. (loc. cit., 10). 
Gisborne, Melbourne. 

796. P. catascia, Meyr. (loc. cit., 10). 
Melbourne, Mt. Macedon. 

797. P. ellenella, Newm. (CEcophora ellenella, Newm., Tr. Ent. 

Soc. Lond., iii., N S., 295, pi. xviii., 3 ; Philobota 
ellenella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., No. x. — 
(Ecophoridai, n). 
Mt. Alexander. 
I have a specimen which I take to be this species from near 
Bendigo. 

798. P. monolitha, Meyr. (loc. cit., 11). 
Melbourne. 

799. P. catalampra, Meyr. (loc. cit., 12). 
Melbourne. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 123 

800. P. auriceps, Butler (Conchy/is auriceps, Butler, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. 1882 ; Philobota auriceps, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W. — CEcophoridce, No. x., 12). 
Gisborne, Melbourne. 

*8oi. P. declivis, Walk. ((Ecophora declivis, Walk., B. M. Cat., 
687 ; Philobota declivis, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. 
N.S.W. — CEcophoridre, No. x., 13). 
Melbourne. 

802. P. molliculella, Walk. (CEcophora molliculella, Walk., 

B. M. Cat., 687 ; Philobota molliculella, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W. — CEcophoridce, No. x., 14). 
Melbourne. 

803. P. hypocausta, Meyr. (loc cit, 15). 
Melbourne. 

*8o4. P. argotoxa, Meyr. (loc. cit., CEcophoridce, No. xv., 1,608, 
1888). 
Melbourne. 

*8o5. P. crvpsichola, Meyr. (loc cit., CEcophoridce, x., 16). 
Gisborne, Melbourne. 

806. P. xiphostola, Meyr. (loc cit., 16). 
Sale, Melbourne. 

*8o7. P. phauloscopa, Meyr. (loc. cit., 18). 
Melbourne (near Cemetery). 

*8o8. P. crepera, Meyr. (loc. cit., 18). 
Melbourne. 

*8o9. P. olympias, Meyr. (loc. cit., No. xv., 1,610, 1888). 
Melbourne. 

810. P. acropola, Meyr. (loc. cit., No. x., 19). 
Fernshaw, Mount Macedon. 

811. P. orinoma, Meyr. (loc. cit., 20). 
Mount Macedon. 

*8i2. P. erebodes, Meyr. (loc. cit., 21). 
Gisborne, Melbourne. 

813. P. melodora, Meyr. (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. — CEcophoridce, 

xv., 1,627, 1888). 
Fernshaw. 

814. P. herodiella, Feld. (Symmoca herodiella, Feld., Reis. Nov., 

pi. cxl., 31 ; Philobota herodiella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N.S.W. — CEcophoridce, x., 23). 
Fernshaw, Melbourne, Gisborne. 

♦815. P. gi.aucoptera, Meyr. (loc. cit., 24). 
Gisborne. 



124 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



*8i6. P. partitella, Walk. (CEcophora partitella, Walk., B. M. 
Cat., 683 ; Philobola partitella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N.S.W. — CEcophoridce, x., 25). 
Melbourne. 

817. P. iphigenes, Meyr. (loc. cit., 1,614, 1888). 
Fernshaw. 

818. P. agnesella, Newman (CEcophora agnesella, Newman, 

Tr. Ent. Soc. Lond., hi., N.S., 297 ; Philobota ag- 
nesella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. — CEcophoridce, 
x., 27). 
Gisborne, Melbourne. 

819. P. squalidella, Meyr. (he. cit., 30). 
Melbourne, Gisborne. 

820. P. productella, Walk. (CEcophora productella, Walk., B. M. 

Cat., 688; CE. griseicostella, Zeller, Hor. Ros., 1877, 
395 ; Philobota productella, Meyr., loc. cit., 30). 
Melbourne, Gisborne, &c. 

821. P. pretiosella, Walk. (Psecadia pretiosella, Walk., B. M. 

Cat., 538 ; Philobota pretiosella, Meyr., Proc. Linn. 
Soc. N.S.W. — CEcophoridce, x., 33). 
Melbourne, Gisborne. 

*822. P. anachorda, Meyr. (loc. cit., 33). 
Melbourne. 

823. P. campyla, Meyr. (loc cit., 1,617, 1888). 
Beechworth. 

*824. P. brochosema, Meyr. (loc. cit., (EJcophoridoi, x., 34). 

Melbourne. 
*825. P. ida, Lower (Tr. Roy. Soc. S.A., 180, 1893). 

Healesville. 

826. P. interlineatella, Walk. (CEcophora interlineatella, 

Walk., B. M. Cat., 692 ; Philobota interlineatella, 
Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. — (Ecophoridce, x., 

35)- 
Melbourne. 

827. P. bracteatella, Walk. (CEcopliora bracteatella, Walk., 

B. M. Cat., 696 ; Philobota bracteatella, Meyr., Proc. 
Linn. Soc. N.S.W. — CEcophoridce, x., 36). 
Melbourne. 

*828. P. trijugella, Zeller (CEcophora trijugella, Zeller, Hor. 
Ros., 1877, 391, pi. v., 136 ; Philobota trijugella, 
Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. — (Ecophoridce, x., 37). 
Melbourne. 



THE 



|} i c t o v i a it ^ a t xx v a I i 1* 

Vol. XIII. -No. 10. JANUARY, 1897. No. 158. 

{PUBLISHED FEBRVAJRY 4, 1S97.) 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, nth January, 1897. The 
chair was occupied by Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S., and some fifty 
members and visitors were present. 

papers. 

1. By Mr. C. French, jun., entitled " Notes on a Collecting 
Trip to the Murray and Loddon Rivers."' The author gave an 
account of a recent collecting excursion in the Lake Charm 
district, and mentioned the principal specimens seen, amongst 
which was the Bombardier Beetle, Pheropsophns verticalis. Al- 
together about one hundred birds were identified on the trip, and 
many uncommon plants collected. 

In the discussion which took place Messrs. C. Frost, D. Le 
Souef, R. Hogg, and D. Best took part. 

2. By Mr. G. E. Shepherd, entitled " Notes on the Nidification 
of Jardine's Campephaga." The author gave an interesting 
account of his discovery of the nests and eggs of this bird, and 
exhibited Victorian specimens for the first time. 

In the discussion which ensued Messrs. D. Le Souef and A. 
Coles took part. 

3. By Mr. A. J. Campbell (communicated by Mr. D. Le Souef), 
entitled " Description of Nest and Egg of Rifle Bird, Ptilorhis 
paradisea." The author remarked that, although the bird was 
discovered seventy-one years ago, its eggs had not been taken 
until November last, in the scrub on the Richmond River, New 
South Wales, and exhibited the egg and nest, the latter being 
beautifully lined with cast snakes' skins. 

4. By Mr. F. M. Reader (communicated by Mr. C. Frost), 
entitled " Contributions to the Flora of Victoria, No. 1." The 
writer described a new Acacia from the Wimmera, which he had 
named Acacia glandulicarpa. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTE. 

Mr. C. C. Brittlebank forwarded a note stating that he had 
observed diatoms in the " red rain " which fell over a large area 
of Victoria on the 27th of December last, and enclosed a rough 
sketch of the species noted. 

Mr. F. G. A. Barnard said that so far as his observations went 
the dust was composed of minute crystals, apparently of silica 



rT»* 



126 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

with ferruginous matter, but Mr. Stickland stated that he had 
also observed diatoms. Mr. J. Shephard said that from the rough 
drawings sent the diatoms appeared to be species commonly 
found in Victoria, and would give no clue as to the origin of 
the dust. 

EXHIBITS. 

The following were the principal exhibits of the evening : — 
By Mr. A. J. Campbell. — Nest and egg of Rifle Bird, Ptilorhis 
paradisea, from New South Wales. By Master A. Campbell. — 
Nest and egg of Rose-breasted Robin, from Dandenong Ranges. 
By Mr. A. Coles. — Black-shouldered Kite, Elanus axillaris; 
egg of Australian Rhynchsea, taken from bird ; Lizard, Moloch 
horridus, from Western Australia. By Mr. C. French, jun. — Bom- 
bardier Beetles, Pheropsophus verticalis, from Murray River, 
Victoria. By Mr. D. Le Souef. — Nest and eggs of Sordid Friar 
Bird, Trojndorhynchus sordidus ; also, nest and eggs of Yellow- 
tinted Honeyeater, Ptilotus Jlavescens. By Mr. F. M. Reader. — 
Specimens of new Acacia, in illustration of paper. By Mr. G. E. 
Shepherd. — Two nests and eggs of Jardine's Campephaga, in 
illustration of paper ; also, nest and eggs of Warty-faced Honey- 
eater and Orange-winged Sittella, from Western Port. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



On the Change of Plumage in Some Exotic Finches. — 
In the Zoologist for December, 1896, Dr. A. G. Butler, F.L.S., 
contributes some notes on the above subject. He says : — " Just 
now (29th October) I have in my aviary some young Gouldian 
Finches in the middle of their change from nestling to adult 
plumage. It must be warm work, for the new feathers come 
over the old, which do not drop out at the time. One died on 
28th October, and I sent it on to Sir William Flower for the 
Natural History Museum, as it is very interesting to see how it 
is done. A few of the feathers at the union of the violently con- 
trasting colours seem to alter in tint, the colour growing in the 
feather itself. This is known to be the case in the crimson 
colouring of the variety Porphila mirabilis, which, when it first 
acquires its adult plumage, closely resembles P. Goiddice, but 
subsequently the black feathers of the head become rusty, red 
brown, and finally crimson. The little Indian Amaduvale is 
always changing ; I should think it must have half a dozen 
plumages in a year, but it only moults once. The Fire Weavers 
( Pyromelana ) only moult the flank feathers and upper tail coverts, 
so far as I can judge, at the assumption of the breeding plumage, 
these feathers being replaced by long soft plumes which cover 
the short tail. All the other feathers change very gradually at 
first, and then rapidly, the full colour appearing first along the 
centre of the shaft, and spreading forwards and laterally." 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 127 



NOTES ON A COLLECTING TRIP TO THE MURRAY 
AND LODDON RIVERS. 

By C. French, Jun. 

(Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, llth January, 1897.) 

Our part}-, consisting of Messrs. G. E. Shepherd, T. A. Brittle- 
bank, and myself, left Melbourne on Saturday, 31st October, our 
destination being Murray Meadows, the residence of Mr. G. 
Morton, an enthusiastic naturalist. 'The journey was very unin- 
teresting for our purpose till after Macorna had been reached ; 
from thence towards Kerang, close to the railway line, the 
following birds were noticed, viz. : — Black-backed Crow Shrike, 
Brown Hawk, White and Straw-necked Ibis, Australian Crane, 
Wattled Plover, Spoonbill, and ducks of various kinds. Of 
plants we noticed Ptilohis exaltatus, with its conspicuous pink 
.flowers ; Bassia, Atriplex, Kochia, and other Salsolacese ; also 
several species of Goodenia. 

On reaching Kerang we were met at the station by Mr. Morton, 
who informed us that, owing to the exceptionally dry season, the 
aquatic birds were not laying ; however, we decided to try our 
luck with the land birds Mr. Morton accompanied us in the 
train to Lake Charm station, situated about 190 miles north west 
of Melbourne, where his conveyance met us, and we were driven 
across to " Murray Meadows," a distance of twelve miles, passing 
en route the beautiful lake from which the railway station takes 
its name. Here we noticed the following aquatic birds, viz : — 
Black Swan, Dottrel (of two kinds), several sons of ducks, 
Coot, Grebe, Avocets, &c. Our attention was also drawn to the 
two salt lakes where, we were told, it was probable that eggs of 
the Orange-fronted Ephthianura might be obtained ; also of Bee- 
eaters and White-winged Superb Warblers. 

Our destination reached, we were welcomed by Mrs. Morton, 
and after having had tea, the remainder of the evening was 
spent in discussing matters of natural history, especially 
regarding snakes, Mr. Morton informing us that a person known 
as " Professor " Davies had the previous season paid a visit to the 
Murray for the purpose of collecting live snakes, and had 
obtained a sackful. One evening, the weather being very, hot, 
the " professor " said the snakes were sweating, and in another 
moment he thrust his hand into the sack and stirred them up, so 
as to let the air get amongst them. We were also informed that 
he is often bitten by them, but apparently takes no notice, as the 
poison has no visible effect on his system. Since our return, 
Mr. Morton writes that this snake-fancier caught ninety snakes 
(principally Tigers) in one day, and probably this consignment 



128 THB VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



will find its way to Melbourne, to create more sensations in the 
city than in the country. 

Next morning, ist November, an early start was made in the 
direction of the Loddon River, and the country worked between 
it and the Murray. Three clutches of White-rumped Wood 
Swallows' eggs were taken, each with the full complement of four ; 
also several nests of White-winded Superb Warblers with three 
eggs apiece, this apparently constituting the full clutch. These 
beautiful little wrens also build their nests amongst the Salicornia 
bushes on the salt lake. A Restless Flycatcher's nest was found, 
and on account of its awkward position the eggs were lost in 
attempting to secure them ; a second nest was also found nearly 
built, and subsequently two eggs were taken from it. 

2ND November. — Explored the banks of Loddon River for 
some miles, keeping to the river and its small tributaries. On 
the plains between the Murray and Loddon rivers many plants 
belonging to the order Salsolaceae were collected, representing 
the genera Atriplex, Kochia, Bassia, Threlkeldia, Enchylaena, and 
Rhagodia ; fine plants of Eremophila divaricata, the pink and 
the rare white-flowered variety, were found in full bloom. On the 
banks of the Loddon Mesembrianthemum aastrale, commonly 
known as " Pig's Face," grew abundantly. The day being hot, 
the expanded pink flowers formed a wonderful contrast amongst 
the parched vegetation. Other plants noticed were Goodenia 
heteromera, G. pinnatifida, G. gracilis, and Teucrium racemosum. 
A Blue-faced Honey-eater's nest was found situated on the top of 
an old Pomatostomus' nest ; we were, however, disappointed to 
find two young birds recently hatched. A Black-faced Graucalus 
was flushed from her nebt, and two fresh eggs were taken, also 
one more clutch of White-winged Superb Warblers, with three 
fresh eggs. 

3RD November. — Crossed over the Murray into New South 
Wales. Dragged our boat into a swamp and poled some dis- 
tance, finally abandoning the boat and wading into reedbeds to 
look for Ibis, Bittern, &c. One of the latter birds was flushed, 
but no nests were found, though we searched diligently for the 
Reed Warblers', who betrayed their presence by their sweet 
notes. Four Tiger Snakes were encountered in a short space of 
time, their usual tendency being displayed by their slipping into 
the water and wobbling away. The sight of so many snakes 
amongst the reedbeds caused a distinctly uncomfortable feeling, 
therefore we struck out for the timber fringing the Murray, killing 
on our way several of them, about a dozen escaping, which were 
of the Tiger species. On reaching the river a Black-fronted 
Dottrel was seen, with a young one recently hatched. It was a 
most difficult task to discover the young bird, as it resembled the 
stones and clay on which it rested. Their eggs cannot easily be 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 129 

found, as the birds smear them frequently with mud of the same 
colour as the eggs, which they deposit at the margins of the 
swamps. With difficulty two clutches of White-winged Corcorax's 
eggs were taken. Several Blue-faced Honey-eaters were seen, 
and also some Yellow-throated Friar Birds, and one of the latter 
was observed constructing its nest. 

4TH November. — Drove to Salt Lake and caught a couple of 
Lizards — a Monitor and a Lace Lizard, or Iguana ; on the latter 
were noticed a great many licks similar to the ones found on 
Opossums and Native Bears. Bee-eaters were seen in numbers, 
but they were only just commencing to tunnel, and none had 
eggs. Orange-fronled Ephthianuras were seen in fairly numerous 
quantities, but though some hours were spent searching round 
the edges of this lake amongst the Salicornia bushes, only one 
nest was taken. This contained three eggs, partly incubated; they, 
however, were successfully treated. Much to our gratification a 
nest of the Chestnut-eared Finch was found underneath and 
attached to a Brown Hawk's nest. It contained six fresh eg;s. 
The hawk's nest was occupied by two or three young ones nearly 
ready to fly. A Buff-rumped Geobasileus' nest was also found, 
containing young, as also several White-shouldered Campephagas', 
and the beautiful Tricoloured Ephthianura was noted. Several 
interesting plants were collected, amongst which were the follow- 
ing : — Pittosporum phj/lli/roides, Nitraria Schoberi, Sida corru- 
gata, Ptilotus obovatus, P. exaltatus, and Myoporum platycarpum; 
the latter, covered with its large bunches of pure white flowers, 
was a sight not easily to be forgotten. The graceful grass, Stipa 
elegaulissima, once common near the lakes, is now exceedingly 
scarce, owing to the sheep eating the plants off close to the 
ground. 

5'm Novembkk. — Another trip was undertaken to the Loddon 
River, and two clutches of White-rumped Wood Swallows' eggs 
taken, also two eggs of the rare Swamp Lory, Plfityeercus jiaveolus. 
The Short-billed or Brown-headed Honey-eater was noticed 
building its nest in a sapling, which also contained the beautiful 
little nest of the Red-capped Robin. On revisiting these nests 
prior to our departure, two fresh eggs were taken from each. 
The Little Acanthiza and White-plumed Honey-eaters were 
noticed building their nests. A Black-faced Graucalus was 
observed sitting in an old Grallina's nest, which, being impossible 
to get, the bird was frightened off and two eggs of the Graucalus 
were noticed, showing that this bird sometimes avails itself of the 
Grallina's nest, and saves itself the trouble of making one of its 
own. The Sordid, White-rumped, and White-eyebrowed Wood 
Swallows were also found nesting in their cup-shaped structures, 
one clutch of the White-rumped Wood Swallow's being taken from 
a nest which had not even been lined. The rest of these nests, 



130 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

however, from which eggs were taken were well lined with grass, 
the Sordid and White-eyebrowed Wood Swallows preferring rootlets 
for this purpose. Many of the Red Gum trees were noticed with 
the trunks and larger branches gnawed by the Cockatoos at their 
junctions with other large limbs, and apparently by the action of 
sun, wind, rain, and exposure decay had set in, and in course of 
lime a bowl was formed, which served for nesting places for 
cockatoos, parrots, and also the White-rumped Wood Swallows, 
as several of their nests were taken after seeing the bird disappear 
in the fork of the tree. Yellow- throated Friar Birds were very 
noisy, and several nests were discovered in early stages of 
construction. 

6th November. — Having secured the services of a lad as 
guide, we followed the course of the Loddon to the Bar Creek. 
Nothing but water was to be found in this " Bar," and this also 
was fast disappearing. A Graucalus mentalis was noticed and 
shadowed for some time, and the nest found, one fresh egg being 
the result. A nest of the Short-billed Smicrornis was taken with its 
two fresh eggs, also one egg of the Yellow-throated Friar Bird. 
A Wedge-tailed Eagle's nest was discovered with young ones 
showing over the edge of the nest. A Black-headed Sittella was 
observed, and a lot of time spent in watching, but it was finally 
lost without discovering its nest. A Spiny-cheeked Honey-eater 
was seen ; also the following birds near the river : — Black-fronted 
Dottrel, New Holland Snipe, Black-tailed Tribonyx — the latter 
bird reminding one of Bantam fowls. Birds here seemed scarce, 
however, except near water, where several parrots were flushed 
from the trees but no nests found. An Iguana was seen 
exploring a Grallina's nest, evidently in search of eggs, but found 
lodgings in our collecting bag. A swim in the Murray in 
returning finished up the day's proceedings. 

7TH November. — The day being hot, with indications of an 
approaching storm, we did not venture far, contenting ourselves 
digging up a blackfellows' oven in search of relics, with no 
success. 

8th November. — An early start was made for a trip into 
Riverina. Two horses were crossed over the Murray — one of the 
party riding one after landing, with the object of scouting ; the 
other was harnessed to a springcart, but refused to move, straight- 
way lay down, and would not rise till the traces, &c , were 
undone and the cart pushed out of the way. After a dose of 
whipcord had been applied, and the animal again yoked, and 
with more greenhide and coaxing, a start was made at last at a 
gentle canter. On striking a cornfield some fodder was reaped 
for the horses, shortly after which, in trying to negotiate an irri- 
gation channel, the springcart was left in the middle, necessitating 
again unharnessing and dragging out the cart ourselves, assisted 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 131 



by a stranger who arrived on the scene, an aboriginal calmly 
surveying us from his steed. We crossed about seven miles of 
somewhat uninteresting country, relieved by the sight of the 
best crop of wheat we had seen ; and several Quandong Trees, 
Santalum acuminatum, were laden with their pretty red fruit, 
some of which we gathered to bring home as a memento of our 
visit. The leaves of the Santalum were covered with a scale 
insect which Mr. Maskell has named as Aspidiotus cladii. It 
was now past noon and we had reached a nice creek, which, by 
the way, rejoiced in the suggestive name of Bullock Hide, an 
article without which all hands voted our horse would have struck 
long ago. After lunch we explored the timber on the banks of 
the creek, and saw a pair of Spotted Bower Birds, but did not 
succeed in finding the nest, though, needless to say, a strong 
effort was made. Several of their old bovvers were noticed, one 
being placed under a large bush of the Prickly Box, Bursaria 
spinosa. A Brown Tree-Creeper was flushed from a hollow tree, 
and three eggs secured, being all the eggs taken, though a White 
Cockatoo was nesting in a large Red Gum, which, however, being 
a most difficult one to climb, was not attempted. After collecting 
the following plants — Atriplex semibaccatum, Bassia lanicvspis, 
Stvainsona lesser tifolia, S emodin Morgania, Dampiera lanceolata 
— a return was now attempted, but our horse again refused, and 
once more the green hide saved us from having to camp out. 
On the return Bee-eaters were again noted, but none of their 
holes contained eggs. The Murray was reached and safely 
crossed just before dark. 

qth November. — Drove to Lake Charm, getting a fresh pair 
of horses from Mr. Embelton, who very kindly drove us to the 
Red Gum Marsh, picking up a guide by the way, and seeing 
several Red-necked Avocets feeding in Racecourse Lake, shortly 
after passing which we noticed the beautiful little Fairy Martin 
nesting under a bridge, and several fresh eggs were secured. 
The majority of the birds, however, had young. Red Gum Marsh 
proved a failure as regards aquatic birds' eggs. Whilst Messrs. 
Shepherd and Brittlebank were exploring the swamp for eggs, I 
decided (with the help of Mr. Embelton) to look for beetles 
under the logs at the edge of the swamp, and obtained a good 
many species, principally belonging to the order Carabidre. One 
especially, called the Bombardier, Pheropsoplms verticalis, struck 
me as being curious. On capturing this beetle it discharges a 
report resembling a person striking wax matches, and at the 
same time a sort of smoke is observable, also a fluid is emitted, 
which is said to cause a severe irritation should it get on 
the hands or face. An interesting description of the British 
Bombardier Beetle, Brachinus crepitans, is given by the Rev. 
J. G. Wood, M.A., in his interesting book " Common British 



132 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Insects," and as the Victorian insect is closely allied to the 
British species, I take the liberty of making the following 
extract from his book. At page 22 he says : — " When alarmed 
it throws out a small quantity of this fluid, which immediately 
volatilizes with a slight explosion when it comes in contact 
with the atmosphere, and looks very much like the fire of 
miniature artillery. This curious property is used in defence. 
This beetle, being a small and comparatively feeble one, is liable 
to be attacked by the larger Geodephaga, especially by those 
belonging to the genus Carabus. The lesser insect could have 
no chance of escape but for its curious weapons of defence. 
When the Carabus chases the Brachinus the latter waits until the 
former has nearly reached its prey, and then fires a gun (so to 
speak) in its face. The effect on the Carabus is ludicrous. The 
insect seems quite scared at such a repulse, stops, backs away 
from the tiny blue cloud, and allows its intended prey to reach a 
place of safety. The volatile fluid which produces such curious 
effects is secreted in a little sac just within the end of the 
abdomen ; it is potent enough to discolour the human skin when 
discharged against it, as many have found who have captured 
Bombardier Beetles by hand. Even after the death of the beetle 
the explosions may be produced by pressing the abdomen 
between the finger and thumb." 

On our return from the marsh, Black-capped Sittellas were 
again seen, but no nests were found. Amongst plants noticed 
were — Eucalyptus gracilis, Hakea leucoptera, Verbena officinalis, 
Cressa crelica, and Panicum gracile. 

ioth November. — Started out early and took several nests 
previously found, and after an early dinner crossed into New 
South Wales to work some swampy country. Disappointment, 
however, again awaited us, no nests being taken, though birds 
were numerous, amongst which the following were conspicuous : 
— Painted and New Holland Snipe, Dottrel (of four species), 
Rails (of two species), Bee-eaters, Ibis, Black-tailed Tribonyx, 
&c. 

Altogether upwards of 100 different species of birds were 
noticed. Plants to the number of about seventy were collected, 
in flower, which was a very fair collection, considering the dry 
season. Beetles were fairly numerous, about eighty species being 
collected. Appended are lists of the specimens obtained on our 
excursions. In conclusion, I beg to thank my father, Mr. C. 
French, Messrs. C. Walter and J. G. Luehmann, for kindly 
furnishing me with the names and other information on the 
specimens collected ; also, Mr. and Mrs. Morton for their 
kind hospitality and attention to us while staying at " Murray 
Meadows." 

The following birds were noticed : — 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



133 



Wedge-tailed Eagle 
Whistling Eagle 
Brown Hawk 
Nankeen Kestrel 
Collared Sparrowhawk 
Winking Owl 

Tawny-shouldered Podargus 
Welcome Swallow 
Tree Swallow 
Fairy Martin 
Australian Bee-eater 
Great Brown Kingfisher 
Sacred Kingfisher 
Red-rumped Kingfisher 
Sordid Wood Swallow 
White- eyebrowed Wood Swal- 
low 
White-rumped Wood Swallow 
Striated Pardalote 
Piping Crow-Shrike 
Collared Crow-Shrike 
Pied Grallina 
Black-faced Graucalus 
Varied Graucalus 
While-shouldered Campephaga 
Rufous-breasted Thickhead 
Harmonious Strike Thrush 
Frontal Strike Tit 
Black Fan tail 
Restless Flycatcher 
Brown Flycatcher 
Short-billed Smicrornis 
Red-capped Robin 
Superb Warbler (Blue Wren) 
White-winged Superb Warbler 
Little Brown Acanthiza 
Striated Acanthiza 
Yellow-rumped Geobasileus 
Buff-rumped Geobasileus 
White -fronted Ephthianura 
Orange-fronted Ephthianura 
Tricoloured Ephthianura 
White-faced Xerophila 
Australian Pipit 
Rufous-tinted Song Lark 
Reed Warbler 
Horsfield's Bush Lark 



Plain-coloured Finch 
Spotted-sided Finch 
Chestnut-eared Finch 
Spotted Bower-Bird 
White-winged Corcorax 
White-eyed Crow 
Temporal Pomatostomus 
White-eyehrowed Pomatosto- 
mus 
White-plumed Honey-eater 
Spiny-cheeked Honey-eater 
Friar Bird 

Yellow-throated Friar Bird 
Short-billed Honey-eater 
Garrulous Honey-eater 
Brown Tree-Creeper 
Orange-winged Sittella 
Black-capped Sittella 
Great Sulphur-crested Cockatoo 
Rose-breasted Cockatoo 
Pennant's Parrakeet 
Rosehill Parrakeet 
Red-rumped Parrakeet 
Warbling Grass Parrakeet 
Swamp Lory Parrakeet 
Parrakeets (5 other species) 
Crested Bronze-winged Pigeon 
Wattled Plover 
Dottrel (4 species) 
Red-necked Avocet 
Marsh Tringa 
New Holland Snipe 
Painted Snipe 
Straw-necked Ibis 
White Ibis 

Yellow-legged Spoonbill 
Native Companion 
Herons (4 species) 
Australian Bittern 
Black-tailed Tribonyx 
Biack Swan 
Semi-palmated Goose 
Ducks (4 species) 
Silver Gull 
Australian Pelican 
Australian Cormorant 
Hoary-headed Grebe 



134 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Plants Collected at 
Clematis microphylla 
Ranunculus lappaceus 
,, parviflorus 

Cabomba peltata 
Capsella pilosula 
Pittosporum phillyroidts 
Nitraria Schoberi 
Lavatera plebeja 
Sida corrugata (3 varieties) 
Euphorbia Drummondi 
Poranthera microphylla 
Stellaria palustris 
Ptilotusobovatus 
,, erubescens 
„ exaltatus 
Rhagodia nutans 
Chenopodium nitrariacum 
Atriplex nummularium 

,, campanulatum 

„ holocarpum 

,, semibaccatum 

,, vesicarium 
Threlkeldia salsuginosa 
Bassia sclerolaenoides 

,, lanicuspis 
Enchylsena tomentosa 
Kochia brachyptera 

,, villosa 
Muehlenbechia adpressa 
Swainsona lessertifolia 
Cassia eremophila 
Melaleuca parviflora 
Eucalyptus largiflorens (red 
Hakea leucoptera 
Pimelea microcephala 
Galium geminifolium 



Murray and Loddon Rivers. 
Brachycome trachycarpa 
Craspedia Richea (very small 

form) 
Minuria leptophylla 
Gnaphalodes uliginosa 
Leptorrhynchos pulchellus 
Ixiulasna leptolepis 
Helipterum corymbiflorum 

,, dimorpholepis 

Helichrysum obtusifolium 
„ lucidum 

,, apiculatum 

Calocephalus citreus 
Myriocephalus rhizocephalus 
Heliotropium Curassavicum 
Lobelia concolor 
Dampiera lanceolata 
Goodenia heteromera 

„ gracilis 

„ pinnatifida 
Cressa crelica 
Solanum esuriale 
Mimulus gracilis 
Stemodia Morgania 
Mentha Australis 
Teucrium ract mosum 
Verbena officinalis 
Myoporum platycarpum 

,, humile 

Eremophila maculata 
,, divaricata 

Damasonium Australe 
fl.) Stipa elegantissima 
Panicum gracile 
Poa Fordeana 
Bromus arenarius 



Errata. — Notes on Plumage of Robins. — On page 115, 
lines 3 and 4, transpose specific names. In line 16, for 
" Phoenicia" read " Leyyii." 

Dkosera binata. — At the November meeting of the Linnean 
Society of London Dr. Morris exhibited dried flower-stems of the 
Australian Twin-leaved Sundew, Drosera binata, Labill., received 
from the Sheffield Botanic Gardens. The stems were 3 ft. 6 in. 
high, bearing from thirty to fifty large pure white flowers, nearly 
one inch across. — Zoologist. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 135 

_ . # 

NOTES ON THE NIDIFICATION OF JARDINE'S 
CAMPEPHAGA. 
By G. E. Shepherd. 
(Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 11th January, 1897.) 
During October, 1893, whilst out for a day's collecting on 
that portion of the Mornington peninsula lying between Mount 
Eliza and Hastings, I met with a bird hitherto unknown and 
likewise unobserved by me. I saw but one, which I shot, and 
had mounted. It proved to be the male of Jardine's 
Campephaga, Edoliisoma tenuirostre. Thinking the bird was 
merely a straggler, I did not at that time trouble further in the 
matter. The following season, being again in the locality, I 
noticed another of these birds (also a male), which I followed 
for some time without being able to see anything of the female, 
though I tried hard to find some evidence that the birds nested 
in the locality. The spring of 1S95 found me again on the look- 
out, and as the male bird was once more in evidence I was 
convinced that these birds yearly resorted to this secluded spot 
to breed, but the whole nesting period passed without my being 
rewarded with even a glance at the female bird — a fact easily 
accounted for, as apparently she makes little, if any, noise, except 
that of fear when disturbed, or an occasional soft cluck-like note 
uttered in an undertone. 

Repeated failures did not discourage me, however, and on 20th 
November last, in company with Mr. A. J. Campbell and his son, 
I paid a visit to the locality previously mentioned. The country 
thereabout is undulating and thickly timbered with messmate 
and peppermint gum, whilst a small creek fringed with ti-tree 
runs through the centre. This creek, though a goodly-sized torrent 
during winter, is dry in summer, save where holes have been made 
by the action of water, which serve to supply bird and other life 
with that necessary element during dry weather. Following the 
creek for some distance, and noting several species of birds 
nesting we suddenly heard the Campephaga giving forth his 
peculiar note, which has been described by Gould as being a 
harsh, grating, buzzing tone several times repeated. This, I may 
say, is always delivered by the bird when at the highest point of 
the tallest trees. This instance proved to be no exception to 
this rule, as by following the sound we located the male bird at 
the extremity of a giant messmate, which he seemed loth to leave, 
and whilst quietly watching his movements Mr. Campbell, jun., 
observed the female sitting upon the nest, placed in a horizontal 
forked branch 50 or 60 feet below where the male bird was 
perched, and at a height of 30 feet from the ground. On my 
ascending the tree she showed no inclination to leave until the 
snapping of a branch startled her off the nest with a rush, and the 
single egg which it contained was broken. An examination, 
however, proved it to be partly incubated. 



13G THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Nine days subsequent to this unfortunate sequel to the first 
nest I discovered the female again sitting, and in order to make 
sure of the full clutch I left the nest undisturbed for a further 
period of three days, when I climbed up. Fearing the bird might 
again shuffle the egg out of the nest I patted the tree to induce 
her to leave the nest. She would not shift, however, and when 
within arm's length of her I reached out my hand, at which she 
spread out her tail and uplifted her feathers in a menacing 
manner, and not till my hand almost touched her did she con- 
descend to leave the nest. On flying off she uttered several 
notes like "cluck, cluck," and was immediately joined by the 
male, both disappearing among the timber. Her departure re- 
vealed one beautiful egg, the nest in this instance being situated 
at a height of 40 feet, and placed in a Peppermint, Eucalyptus 
amygdalina. I subsequently found another nest in a different 
locality, which contained one egg with incubation far advanced, 
hence I think I may fairly claim to have established the fact that 
one egg constitutes the clutch. As showing the diversity of 
situation chosen by this bird for nesting purposes, however, I was 
fortunate enough to find one situated in a small Honeysuckle 
(Banksia) tree, just 16 feet from the ground. In this instance I 
also allowed ample time for the bird to complete her laying, but, 
as previously noted, but one egg was laid. 

I have no doubt that the birds build in isolated pairs over a 
wide area, though I only located the two pairs, separated by 
something like a distance of two miles. Quiet, unfrequented 
localities, where the timber is big and tall, with permanent water 
in the vicinity, is no doubt the spots chosen by these birds for 
nesting purposes, and they probably migrate northwards as soon 
as the young are capable of sustained flight. 

In the " Records of the Australian Museum," vol. ii., No. 1, 
page 13, a short account is given by Mr. A. J. North, F.L.S , of 
the discovery of a nest, which contained but one egg, by Mr. 
C. C. L. Talbot, on Collaroy station, Broad Sound, 556 miles 
north-west of Brisbane, during the month of September, 1882, 
This nest was situated forty feet from the ground, in an ironbark 
tree, and is, so far as I am aware, the only occasion previously 
recorded of the discovery of the nest of this bird. 

I am exhibiting to-night two nests and two eggs, one from 
each pair of birds, and the eggs show considerable difference in 
shape ; also in the ground colour when seen in daylight. In 
conclusion I may state that both birds perform the task of 
building the nest, as I observed each of them so occupied. The 
nest will always be a most difficult one to find, owing to the 
extremely shy and retiring nature of the birds, and from the fact 
that the female sits so closely that she will not be flushed from 
the nest by anyone passing ever so near to her on the ground. 



THE 

|Jtjctartatt $1 a t xx v a I i # t* 

Vol. XIII.— No. 11. FEBRUARY, 1897. No. 159. 

{PUBLISHED MARCH 4, 1897.') 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, 8th February, 1897. The 
chair was occupied by Mr. J. Shephard, one of the vice- 
presidents, and some eighty members and visitors were present. 

reports. - 

A report of the excursion to Nar-Nar-Goon on Saturday, 16th 
January, was forwarded by the leader, Mr. H. Giles. The 
members attending this excursion were rather successful, some 
rare beetles being collected, among which were Chondropygia 
gidosa, Tetralobus CunningJiami, Gcdbodema Mannerheimi, 
Chaodalis Macleayii, Schizorrhina Bestii, and Tricaulax 
Philipsii. 

A report of the excursion to Ferntree Gully on Foundation Day, 
26th January, was read by the leader, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, who 
mentioned that the excursion was fairly successful and an enjoy- 
able day was spent. Among the plants obtained were Cyno- 
glossum latifolium, Coprosma Billardieri, Dianella Tasmanica, 
Lyonsia straminea, and Dipodium punctatwm, as well as severai 
species of ferns. A few beetles were collected, and numbers of 
the beautiful butterfly, Papilio Macleayanus, were seen. 

GENERAL BUSINESS. 

Mr. F. G. A. Barnard mentioned having received a letter from 
England, from Mrs. Forbes-Leith, informing him of the death of 
her husband, one of the original members and latterly an hon. 
member of the club. It was decided that a letter of sympathy be 
sent to Mrs. Forbes-Leith. 

PAPERS. 

By Mr. D. Le Souef, entitled " Notes on a Trip to the Bloom- 
field River, Queensland." The author gave an interesting account 
of a trip lately made to the Peter Botte Mountain, near Cooktown, 
North Queensland. The habits of many of the birds met with, 
especially the Talegalla, were described, also some of the 
characteristics of the natives who accompanied him. Benneit's 
Tree Kangaroos were plentiful, and one of the objects of his 
visit was to procure some of those on the mountains, in order to 
determine to which species they belonged. The paper was 
splendidly illustrated with lantern views from photos, taken by 
the author. 



%m^~° 



138 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Some discussion ensued, in which Messrs. Frost, French, 
Thomas, and Coles took part. 

A vote of thanks was accorded Mr. J. Searle for his kindness 
in providing and managing the lantern. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Mr. R. Hall read a supplemental list of birds found in the 
Swan Hill — Kerang district, being the result of several years' 
observations, and comprising upwards of 50 species of birds in 
addition to those recorded by Mr. C. French, jun., in his paper 
read at the January meeting (Vict. Nat., vol. xiii., p. 133). He 
also read a short note on the mode of attack made upon a Tree 
Sparrow by the larvae of a fly which had come under his 
observation at Myrniong. 

Mr. G. E. Shepherd read a note on a pair of Orange-winged 
Sittellas which he had observed feeding a young Pallid Cuckoo, 
being the first time he had observed those birds acting as foster 
parents to the cuckoo. 

Mr. E. Anderson announced the discovery of a butterfly, not 
only previously unrecorded from Victoria, but also probably new 
to science. The discovery was made near Melbourne, in the 
course of concerted investigations now being carried on into the 
life-histories of the rarer Lycaenidae by Messrs. Anderson and Spry. 
A series of the insect, for which the name of Lyccena cyrilus, 
And. and Spry, MS., is proposed, was exhibited, and it was 
mentioned that a full description and figures would appear in the 
Club's magazine at an early date. 

EXHIBITS. 

The following were the principal exhibits of the evening : — By 
Mr. E. Anderson. — A new Victorian butterfly, Lyccena cyrilus, MS. 
By Mr. A. Coles. — Straw-necked Ibis, Geronticus spinicollis. By 
Mr. C. French, sen.. F.L.S. — Six Australian beetles new to science, 
viz. : — Anatasis Muelleri, Cape York ; Gallirhipis Cardwellensis, 
North Queensland ; Distichocera Frenchi, Aphileus ferox, Cape 
York ; Strigoptera Australis, Mallee, Victoria, and S. marmorata, 
Murray, Victoria. By Mr. C. French, jun. — Eggs of Collared 
Sparrowhawk, from Central Australia. By Mr. J. Gabriel. — Ferns 
from the Dandenong Ranges, viz., Aspidium hispidum and 
Davallia dubia, var. cristata. By Mr. R. Hall. — Skins of eight 
species of Victorian birds, young and mature. By Rev. J. S. 
Hart, M.A. — Stones from glacial conglomerate, Carisbrook. By 
Mr. J. A. Kershaw. — Australian Lepidoptera, including Anthercea 
j arietta (showing variation), Ialmenus eubulus (light variety), /. 
cvagoras (very light variety), and Agarista casuarince (rare). By 
Mr. D. Le Souef — Specimens from North Queensland, in illus- 
tration of paper. By Mr. J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S. — A new 
Eucalyptus, E. lorquata, from near Coolgardie, W.A., collected by 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 139 



Mr. W. A. Macpherson. By Mr. F. Reader, F.R.H.S.— Lepto- 
spermum Jiavescens, Sm., and Ghorizandra enodis, Nees., new for 
the north-west of Victoria. By Mr. G. E. Shepherd.— Pair of 
Painted Snipe. By Mr. J. Stickland. — Sketches of Diatoms found 
in deposit left by the recent red rain. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



THE LATE T. A. FORBES-LEITH. 
It is with great regret we record the death, on the 8th December 
last, at Reigate, Surrey, England, of Mr. T. A. Forbes-Leith, at 
the age of 62. He was an honorary member of the Field 
Naturalists' Club of Victoria, and for many years one of its most 
prominent workers, having been elected a member of the first 
committee of management in May, 1880. He was twice 
re-elected to that office, and afterwards for four years filled the 
position of a vice-president. He visited England in 1887-8, 
returning to Victoria in 1889, but only remained a few months, 
and, though a Scotchman by birth, with a long and noble ancestry, 
from his long residence in the colonies he was a thorough 
Australian at heart. Family matters, however, required his 
presence in the old country, and on his final return to 
England he was in 1890 elected an hon. member of the Club, in 
recognition of his many services in advancing its interests. At its 
meetings he contributed several papers on various natural history 
subjects, the most important being a series of five papers on " The 
Parrots of Victoria," of which he had an extensive knowledge, 
which were published in the Southern Science Record, vols. ii. and 
iii. As a regular exhibitor at the monthly meetings and the annual 
conversaziones, generally of specimens, often unique, relating to his 
favourite study, ornithology, he will be remembered by many. 
Ever ready to help a young beginner with advice or information 
gained during his many collecting trips about the colony, he made 
many friends. He had amassed a large collection of natural 
history specimens from all parts of the world, but unfortunately 
left no directions as to its disposal. He was also possessed of con- 
siderable literary ability, and published a volume of " Short 
Essays " on various subjects, besides being the author of numerous 
poems. 

EXCURSION TO NAR-NAR-GOON. 

Saturday, the 16th January, was the day appointed for the 
excursion to Nar-Nar-Goon, and I much regretted when the train 
came in to see that the Club was represented by only two 
members— Messrs. D. Best and G. Mowling. They were met at 
the station by the local members — the leader and Mr. J. C. Neil 
— but the latter had to unfortunately leave us almost directly, on 
account of pressing business. However, his brother, Mr. Cavan 



140 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



Neil, elected to take his place and share in the day's adventures. 
About 8 o'clock a.m. a nasty, cold, drizzling rain set in from the 
south-west, which threatened ill for the day's operations, but after 
rather more than an hour's duration it ceased, and the sun 
asserted itself, promising a fine day. 

After a brief consultation as to which route to take it was 
decided to go south towards the vast Koo-Wee-Rup Swamp, but 
we did not get very far before rain started again for a short time, 
which made things very unpleasant. However, we persisted in 
shaking every bit of bloom and likely bush, but found that 
insects had stowed themselves away in drier quarters for the time, 
except the spider tribe, whose webs were in evidence everywhere, 
and I must confess that it is not one of the most pleasant sensa- 
tions to feel their light, airy scaffolding continually across one's 
face, let alone clothes, containing, as it so often does, the remains 
of past banquets of flies, locusts, moths, &c. 

After proceeding some distance we came across a large patch 
of Helichrysum and Leptospermum in bloom, but did not get any- 
thing worth noting after a vigorous shaking for some time. Then 
our first and only capture of the rare Cetonia, Chondropyga 
(Schizorrhina) gulosa (Christyi), was secured on the latter shrub. 
Soon after we were driven to seek shelter such as it afforded from 
a neighbouring clump of Peppermint Gums, Eucalyptus amygda- 
lina. While there we passed the time in bark-stripping, but did 
not get many good things. However, we found the fine Longi- 
corn, Phoracantha tricuspis, almost ready to emerge from its 
chamber, and a few of the fine Elater, Tetralobus Cunninghamii, 
were also taken, while hosts of the common bark-dwellers, as 
Elaters, Cleridae, Caribs, &c, were left to carry on their domestic 
arrangements in peace. One specimen was also taken of the 
singular and curious family of the Paussidae, Arthropterus (sp.) 
It may not be generally known that this beetle possesses the 
singular properties of the Bombardier Beetle, described in Mr. C. 
French's, jun., account of his trip to the Murray, to which I 
would refer those who have not already heard or read it, but the 
report of this species is much louder, and distinctly heard as soon 
as you touch it, while the fluid it discharges is very volatile and 
nauseous, and if it comes in contact with the fingers it leaves a 
stain very similar to that made by caustic, and if not wiped off at 
once is almost as difficult to remove : such is my experience. I 
am in hopes of shortly finding out the component parts of this 
gaseous fluid, and, if successful, I will furnish a few notes to the 
Club, as a medical friend has kindly undertaken to work it out if 
I can furnish him with live specimens. 

After the rain had modified we again sallied forth on our way 
and shortly captured several beautiful specimens of the rare 
beetle, Galbodema Mannerheimi, in its home retreat. After another 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 141 

lot of fruitless shaking and walking we were suddenly made 
acquainted with the scarce and pretty Buprestis, Cisseis 
12-jmnctata, which has only been taken in this one narrow strip 
of land, though the food plant is abundant everywhere in the 
district, and it has been carefully searched for since the first time 
of taking it three seasons ago. 

Presently one member was seen cramming his bag with what 
many people would call " firewood." However, we knew it 
contained larvse, and of the rare and handsome Longicorn, 
Strongylurus cretij'er, to be reared at home. I believe this 
insect is previously unrecorded for this colony, unless Mr. C. 
French, F.L.S., to whom I sent a few last season, has done so. 
Resuming our search, we were rewarded with the two rare 
Cetonias, Clorobapta fSchizorrhina) Bestii and Tricaulax 
Philipsii, in one shake, and needless to say it seemed to add new 
vigour to that operation, but all we could get were quantities of 
the two common Schizorrhinas, S. Azistralasice and *S'. punctata. 
Presently, however, another shake revealed the presence of the 
pretty little Cetonia, Clithria fSchizorrhina) eucnemis. 

Another heavy drizzle now caused two to seek shelter of 
neighbouring trees, but our two entomologists braved the rain in 
hopes of finding something good at home or sheltered in the 
Leptospermum, and they were rewarded with a few rare Buprestis — 
Stigmodera semisuiuralis, S. Thomsonii, and S. Andersonii ; also 
a pair of the very rare and mimicking Longicorn, Chaodalis 
Macleayii, a rare insect, previously recorded only by Messrs. 
Best and Kershaw as a Victorian. Captures like these seemed 
to amply repay us for all the weary walking and shaking with 
which we spent the next few hours, but we were not very 
successful in Coleoptera, our best capture being a fine specimen 
of our largest Clerus, Natalis Titanus, only taken once before 
on a Club excursion to Ferntree Gully, by Mr. Best, or if 
taken not recorded. We also found a fine lot of larvae of 
one of the " Bombyx " moths, Pinara cana, and as some 
of them had already spun their frail cocoons, they were taken 
charge of for rearing out ; a few of the strong, bristly cocoons 
of another Bombyx, Darala censors, were also secured. A few 
of the latter's caterpillars were covered with numbers of small 
red parasites, so they were taken, to see if these would cause 
their death Subsequently I found that they invariably suc- 
cumbed to the combined attacks of the parasites, and even if 
they spun up they seemed to die soon after the operation. A 
number of Tarantulas were also observed covered with these 
little parasites, and 1 took two of the finest, male and female, 
to see if they would die or not, and although 1 fed them well, 
on looking in one day I found the good lady banqueting on 
her lord. 



142 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Lepidoptera were not much sought after, but we noted that all 
the commoner ones were fairly numerous. A few of our best 
butterflies comprised the Skippers, Trapezites iacchus and T. 
phigalia (one worn specimen), the silvery form of Hesperilla 
donnysa, H. Tasmanicus, and the very small Taractrocerca 
papyria. The Blues comprised Ghrysophanus aurifer and 
Holochila mosrens. 

Amongst the moths were the following : — Bombyces, Porthesia 
obsoleta, Spilosoma Julvo-hirta, S. obliqua, and the rarer S, 
fuscinula, the fine Epidesma chilonaria, and E. tryxaria, 
Gastrophora Henricaria (a worn female), and a few of the beautiful 
genus Eucloris, viz., E. (Iodis) meandraria, E. siereota, and E. 
buprestaria, with several others. 

Reptiles were represented by some of the commoner small 
lizards under the bark or logs we disturbed, of which the most 
numerous was Hinulia Quoyi. 

Botany was, I am sorry to say, in want of more attention. 
Three species of Eucalyptus, E. amygdalina, E. obliqua, and E. 
globidus, were noted in bloom ; the beautiful Tetratheca ciliata was 
observed to be still in flower, as also Dampieri Australis. The 
only orchids noted were Dipodium punctatum and two species of 
Pterostylis. 

Notwithstanding the miserable weather experienced, we all 
agreed that from a collector's point of view the excursion could 
be considered a success, as though our captures were not 
numerous they were of considerable rarity. — H. M. Giles. 



EXCURSION TO FERNTREE GULLY. 

The promise of a hot day greeted those members of the Club who 
met to take the first train to Ferntree Gully on Tuesday, 26th 
January (Foundation Day). At Ringwood, the changing station, 
a wait of half an hour enabled us to count heads and find that 
there were six Field Naturalists en route. 

We decided to leave Ferntree Gully proper for the holiday- 
makers, and started off on the Emerald and Gembrook road, 
which crosses the gully nearly opposite the park gates. The road, 
which runs in a south-east direction between the outlying hills 
of the Dandenongs, is bordered by such shrubs as Cassinias, 
Bursarias, Acacias, Eucalypts, &c, and we were soon vigorously 
at work shaking their flowering branches into our open umbrellas. 
Results, however, were poor : several species of Mordellidae, 
Scarabidae (Cockchafers), with a few Cleridseand Longicorns, were 
the principal beetles seen. Continuing along this road we got 
many pretty glimpses of the ranges on the one side, and of the 
lower country towards Western Port on the other, and were much 
pleased with the picturesqueness of the situation of Glen Harrow, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 143 

the country nursery of the late Mr. J. C Cole, situated in a basin 
on the banks of the Monbulk Creek. A short sketch of the 
interesting contents of this charming spot appeared in the 
Australasian of Saturday, 6th February. 

Descending a rather rough stony hill we came to the Railway 
Survey Camp on the Monbulk Creek. Here we had been told 
was a good place to turn northwards into the ranges, and we were 
fortunate in meeting a resident, who told us there had been a 
track some twenty years ago up the spur, but we would probably 
find it rather rough, and leave some of our clothes behind. 

We spent a few minutes on the bank of the creek, and came 
across Cynoylossum latifolium, a small plant with stems covered 
with hairlets shaped like minute rose thorns. We found the 
track without difficulty, and working up the hill met with the 
usual fern-gully vegetation. Coprosma Billardieri was noted, 
with its pretty pink or red fruit, and stems of Dianella Tasmanica, 
a liliaceous plant, were obtained, crowded with beautiful ultra- 
marine-coloured fruit. Presently we emerged on the top of the 
hill, from which we got a splendid view of the surrounding 
country, and, finding a track leading in a northerly direction, 
decided to follow it. The orchid Dipodium punctatum was 
obtained in flower, and more stems of Dianella seen. We were 
now on a comparatively level table-land. Big timber was 
plentiful, but without beetles under the bark. Such shrubs as 
Senecio Bedjordi, Aster argophyllus, and Goodia lotifolia were 
noted, and in places were festooned with Clematis aristata, 
showing the feathery appendages of the seeds. 

Owing to the heat we looked anxiously for a spring, but were 
disappointed. At last we came to some settlers' houses, and on 
making inquiries found we were within almost a stone's-throw of 
the Sassafras Creek, so determined to make for it and lunch 
among the fern trees. This important proceeding over, some 
time was devoted to exploring the banks of the creek. The 
locality, being evidently a well-used crossing-place, was rather open, 
consequently the vegetation was somewhat knocked about. The 
stems of the tree-ferns here were of considerable thickness, and 
the number of abnormal forms was somewhat remarkable — viz., 
two and three crowns from one stem, stems leaning over then 
growing straight up, &c. Owing to the progress of the village 
settlement scheme the country is being opened up, the protecting 
eucalytpus killed, and consequently the parasitic ferns, such as 
Polypodiums and Hymenophyllums, did not present such a flourish- 
ing appearance as they do in more secluded gullies. Other ferns, 
such as Lomaria Capense (var. procera), Asplenium bulbij'erum, 
I'teris incisa, &c, were obtained. A remarkably fine frond of the 
latter was noted, being fully five feet high, with a stem $4$ of an 
inch thick. Some Planarians and a land shell were taken under 



144 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

the fern stems, and some Mountain Trout seen in the stream. 
Butterflies were rather scarce, Papilio Macleayanus, Pyrameis itea, 
and Xenica Kershawi being the principal ones seen though not 
captured. Some fine specimens of the Sassafras, Atherosperma 
moschatum, were growing here. 

As we did not know how far we had to travel to reach Ferntree 
Gully station we did not care to delay too long at the creek, so 
turned our steps westwards, and climbed a steep hillside, which 
had at one time been a splendid forest, but is now covered with 
enormous skeletons of trees. Many of these must have been at 
least 10 feet in diameter at 6 feet from the ground, and fully 100 
feet to the first branch, with a total height of quite 200 feet. We 
afterwards found that we had lunched only about a mile from the 
big tree named " The Baron " by Mr. Boyle, of Forest Hill, which 
he described in the Argus some years ago as being 450 feet high and 
81 feet in circumference at 4 feet from the ground. These measure- 
ments were afterwards corrected by Mr. Pen-in, Conservator of 
Forests, to 220 feet high (top broken) and 48 feet in circumference 
at 6 feet from the ground (see Victorian Naturalist, vol. v., p. 
152, and vol. vi., p. 88). Even this size is large enough, 
I think, to warrant an attempt being made by the Club to see such 
a tremendous result of Nature's handiwork before it shares the 
fate of so many of its neighbours, and now that there is a good 
walking track from Upper Ferntree Gully, might be attempted 
next spring. 

On reaching the top of the hill we struck the track to One 
Tree Hill, with selectors' houses dotted here and there. It was 
now very hot, and we were glad to avail ourselves of a drink from 
a cool spring just below the roadside. Coming to a junction in 
the track we kept to the left, and presently came to where the 
road crossed one of the heads of Ferny Creek. Here we halted 
tor some time, and did a little more exploration, but nothing of 
importance beyond the climber Lyonsia straminea was noticed. 
Some young plants of Clematis aristata were removed for home 
cultivation. After a good ramble we once more got under weigh, 
and soon reached more open country. Giant trees occurred at 
frequent intervals, and many splendid Blackwoods were seen. 
The roadside was bordered with quantities of Senecio dryadeus, 
Pimelea hypericina, and Solatium aviculare, with its bunches of 
large green fruit. Further along quantities of Sambucus 
Gaudichaudiana, with its yellowish white currant-like berries were 
seen and tasted. We now came to the finest prospect of the day. 
The road first headed a deep gully full of Sassafras, Blackwood, 
tree ferns, &c, and then turned round the end of a spur, and we 
overlooked the whole of the Mornington Peninsula. While 
admiring the view some moths, Agarista (sp.), were captured, and 
an attempt made to secure Papilio Macleayanus, but without 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 




THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. I4. r ) 

success. Walking on, in about half a mile we struck the old 
road from One Tree Hill to the station, and were soon descending 
as rough a piece of walking as we had encountered all day. This, 
however, has recently been superseded by a road with an easier 
gradient, though much longer. After another pause at the gully 
we made for the station, thus ending a most enjoyable outing, 
though at times rather warm. Beyond those mentioned few 
insects were seen. Birds were very scarce ; no snakes, and but 
few lizards were seen. — F. G. A. Barnard. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE NEST AND EGG OF THE 
RIFLE BIRD. 

By A. J. Campbell. Communicated by D. Le Souef. 
(Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, Wth January, 1897.) 

The discovery of the nest and egg of the Rifle Bird, Ptilorhis 
paradisea, Latham, is of considerable importance. It is 71 years 
ago since the bird itself was described, and yet only this season 
have the nest and egg been brought to light. The nest was taken 
in the Richmond River scrub, on 19th November last, by Messrs. 
W. T. Bailey and Isaac Foster. It was built in a buoyong sap- 
ling, Tarrietia (sp.), at a height of about 40 feet from the ground, 
the nest being placed in an entanglement of vines, which covered 
the top of the tree. A peculiar feature of the nest was its adorn- 
ment with shed snake skins, the largest pieces being on the top 
edge, while a few small bits were in the nest. The nest and egg 
are exhibited here to-night. 

Nest. — Somewhat bulky; outwardly constructed chiefly of 
green stems and fronds of a climbing fern, with a few other 
broad leaves at the base, ornamented round the rim with 
portions of shed snake skins, probably from the Carpet Snake, 
Morelia variegata, lined inside with wire-like rootlets and 
a few scales of snake's skin at the bottom. Dimensions in 
inches — over all 8-9 in. by 4 in. in depth ; egg cavity 4 in. across 
by 2 in. deep. 

Egg.— In shape, inclined to oval, but more swollen about the 
upper quarter; shell, fine in texture, surface somewhat uneven, 
but slightly lustrous ; colour, rich fleshy tint, moderately but 
boldly marked or streaked longitudinally with reddish brown and 
purplish brown, the markings being more numerous on the apex 
and upper quarter. Some of the markings have the appearance 
of having been painted on with a fine brush. The egg resembles 
in general character the smaller egg of Victoria's Rifle Bird, but 
is richer in the ground colour, with the markings not so 
elongated. Dimensions in inches — 1.29 x 0.98. 



146 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF VICTORIA. 

No. I. 
By F. M. Reader. Communicated by C. Frost. 
{Read before Field Naturalists'' Club of Victoria, \ltk January, 1897.) 
Description of a New Species of Acacia from the North- 
Western District. 
Shortly prior to his demise, Baron von Mueller, the great 
authority on Australian plants, informed me that this species had 
been wrongly included in Acacia obliqua, Cunn., and advised 
that ample material should be obtained in order to arrive at a 
correct and complete elucidation of the species, and after many 
journeys to the habitat of the plant I have only recently suc- 
ceeded in acquiring the necessary specimens. The lamented 
death of Baron von Mueller so suddenly ending his laborious 
and valuable researches has prevented this new species being 
described by him. I have therefore considered it necessary and 
obligatory on my part to prepare an analysis of the plant, and 
record it as a species new to science. 

Acacia glandulicarpa, F. M. Reader. — A decumbent or 
erect, almost intricately much branched shrub, from about i to 
above 5 feet high ; branchlets terete, hoary or scantily beset with 
appressed shining hairs. Young shoots viscid. 

Phyllodia small, from }^-^s of an inch long, oblique, thick, 
undulate, and shining ; from oblong-obovate to almost rhom- 
boidal ; shortly thick-pointed, minutely glandular-dotted, margin 
entire, thickened ; usually 2-veined ; veins either prominent, thick, 
or impressed, forming two shallow furrows, or merely lines. 
Secondary veins scarcely prominent, somewhat anastomosing. 
Stipules small, thick, almost deltoid, persistent. 

Flower-heads small, 8-20-flowered or more. Peduncles solitary 
or in pairs, reddish, slender, shorter than or as long as or finally 
longer than the phyllodia, from T V-f of an inch long, spreading 
or deflexed. Bracts concave, yellowish or brown, almost deltoid- 
spathular, slightly longer than the calyx, ciliate and beset with 
whitish shining hairs, with a thick, conspicuous, slightly excurrent 
nerve. 

Calyx yellowish-white, 5-lobed ; lobes about as long as the tube, 
ciliate, somewhat clothed with whitish shining hairs. 

Corolla divided into 5 petals ; petals glabrous, oblong-ovate, 
slightly oblique, rather acute, with a broad prominent nerve. 

Pods almost straight or curved, constricted between the seeds, 
narrow or broadly oblong, y 2 -i inch long, viscid and covered with 
glandular-whitish shining hairs. 

Seeds dull-black or olivaceous, oblique, obovate-elliptic, de- 
pressed, T \ of an inch long. 

Funicle short, thin, whitish ; strophiole ample, unilaterally 
extending to the middle of the seed. 

The seeds often appear glossy from the viscid exudation 
adhering to the testa, giving them a polished appearance. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 147 

Flowering from July-October. In hilly mallee country, north- 
west from Dimboola. — F. Reader, 1895. 

This species systematically approaches A. obliqua, but differs 
from it in the calyx being lobed, in the phyllodia 2-veined, the 
pods glandular hairy, and other characteristics. It may easily be 
confounded with A. armata, R. Br., but at once be distinguished 
from that species by the non-acicular, small stipules. 

RELIQUL4E MUELLERIAN^E : 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AUSTRALIAN PLANTS IN 

THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM, MELBOURNE. 

By J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., Curator. 

(Read before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 8th February, 1897.) 

Eucalyptus torquata, Luehmann. 

Leaves petiolate, lanceolate, slightly oblique at the base, about 
4 inches long, y z to 2 /z inch broad, coriaceous, the lateral veins 
oblique, but hardly visible except under a lens, of a dull greyish- 
green colour on both sides. Peduncles axillary or lateral, 
slender, nearly 1 inch long, bearing an umbel of about 7 
flowers. Pedicels as long as the peduncle, slender, mostly some- 
what quadrangular. Calyx about 4 lines long, the base abruptly 
dilated into a ring with 7 to 10 prominent vertical ridges, the 
upper portion turbinate or nearly cylindrical, slightly streaked, 
the rim narrow. Operculum with a basal protuberance similar 
to that of the calyx, the upper part forming a narrow cone fully 
3 lines long. Stamens all fertile, 4 to 6 lines long, the filaments 
of a reddish-orange colour ; anthers rather large, truncate, and 
broader on top than at the base, opening by longitudinal parallel 
slits. Ovulary 5-celled. Fruit not seen. 

Western Australia, in the neighbourhood of Coolgardie ; W. A. 
Macpherson. 

Although only a single specimen of this species is available I 
have ventured to submit a description of it on account of the most 
singular dilatation of the calyx. It seems to have the greatest 
affinity to E. incrassata, especially as regards the anthers. It 
also bears some resemblance to E. decurva, but that species has 
very small nearly globular anthers. 



NOTES. 
Mimicry amongst Victorian Birds and Insects. — I would 
like to draw attention to the interesting peculiarities of protective 
and deceptive mimicry noticeable in several of our Victorian 
birds and insects. Professor Drummond has given us a hiyhly 
interesting account of the habits of an African species of 
Phasmidae, which is almost impossible to distinguish from the dry 
grass amongst which it lives. We have also the results of 
observations made by A. R. Wallace on some South American 



148 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

insects ; but popular attention, I think, has not been directed to 
our local examples. Take, for instance, the Tawny-shouldered 
Podargus. As he sits lengthwise on some dry limb, with eyes 
closed and beak elevated until it is on the same angle as the 
body, and the whole bird as motionless as if carved in stone, it is 
difficult to believe that this ungainly object is anything more than a 
dry limb broken off, and even a careful observer may be deceived. 
Another instance is noticeable in the Southern Stone Plover, 
though not to the same extent as in the Podargus ; by choosing a 
place where its colour harmonizes, together with its habit of 
keeping rigidly still, and in a peculiar position, it is assimilated to 
its surroundings to such an extent that it is hardly perceptible. 
No doubt the Curlew finds its powers of mimicry a great pro- 
tection, for the Wedge-tailed Eagle is constantly on the alert for 
its long-legged quarry. But with the different orders of insects 
this peculiarity is much more strikingly apparent, and of far greater 
variety. Thus, in the case of one of our large " stick-insects," 
Phasmidse, the whole insect, both by reason of colour and shape, 
bears an amazing resemblance to the small branches and leaflets 
of the tops of trees, upon which it feeds. Again, some kinds of 
caterpillars greatly resemble their immediate surroundings, notably 
those which form themselves into an arch or loop when moving. 
One of the most perfect instances of mimicry that I have observed 
in caterpillars is a small grey one, about an inch in length, which 
is an exact counterpart of a portion of dry " Bull-oak " leaf. 
When resting on these dried leaves I would defy the keenest-eyed 
bird, to detect its presence, and it was only by seeing these bits 
of rubbish move that the writer became aware of their real nature. 
Then, again, we have a small Curculio of a brown colour, with a 
black spot arranged in a lighter patch at the base of the elytra in 
such a manner as to form a remarkable likeness to a knot in the 
branch to which it clings. Of the same nature as this, but with a 
different object in view, are several small spiders, common in the 
Mallee districts, and known as " jumpers," from their habit of 
leaping from point to point, and by which they also secure their 
prey. The habitat ol these spiders is amongst the dried twigs and 
rubbish on the ground, and when in their favourite attitude on 
some dry stick, the unwary sand-fly or gnat will approach within 
an inch or two, unconscious of the presence of its subtle foe, 
until a sudden, powerful spring and a sharp bite completes the 
tragedy. Amongst moths, especially the smaller species, there are 
several which, on account of their colour, and by their ability to 
fold their wings close to the bark of the trees upon which they 
rest, are able to render themselves almost invisible. Many other 
instances might be mentioned in which these peculiar character- 
istics are exhibited, but perhaps enough has been said to attract 
the attention of other observers, and lead to the publication of 
further notes on the subject. — J. C. Goudie, Birchip, Victoria. 



THE 

Qictoviaxx %l a t n v a i i 1 ♦ 

Vol. XIII.— No. 12. MARCH- APRIL, 1897. No. 160. 

(PUBLISHED APRIL S, 1S97.) 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA. 

The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, 8th March, 1897. The 
president, Professor W. Baldwin Spencer, M.A., occupied the 
chair, and about 70 members and visitors were present, including 
Mr. J. H. Maiden, F.L.S., Curator of the Botanic Gardens, 
Sydney. 

PAPERS. 

1. By Mr. F. M. Reader (communicated by Mr. C. Frost,F.L.S.), 
entitled " Contributions to the Flora of Victoria, Part II," The 
author described a new grass belonging to the genus Stipa, which 
he had named Stipa acrociliata. It was collected by himself in 
the Sandy Desert, Lowan, Victoria, in 1895. In aspect it is quite 
distinct from any described species. 

2. By Mr. A. J. Campbell (communicated by Mr. D. Le Souef), 
entitled "Three Rare Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds." The 
author described the nests and eggs of the Purple-breasted Fruit 
Pigeon and Red-crowned Fruit Pigeon, from Richmond River, 
New South Wales ; also of Jardine's Campephaga, Victoria. 

3. By Mr. D. Le. Souef, entitled " Notes on a Trip to the 
Bloomfield River, Queensland." The author gave an interesting 
account of a trip to the Bloomfield River district, and described 
his visit to the Hope Islands, near the Barrier Reef, giving a brief 
sketch of the growth of the coral reefs. He also described a 
visit to King Plains, where in the lagoons immense numbers of 
waterfowl were seen. In the same district the disastrous effect 
of the tick pest was evident on all sides. The paper was 
illustrated by a series of lantern views from photographs taken by 
Mr. Le Souef and kindly shown by Mr. J. Searle. A short dis- 
cussion ensued, in which Mr. E. J. Thomas and Professor W. 
Baldwin Spencer took part. 

NATURAL HISTORY NOTES. 

Mr. R. Hall read a note on a White-faced Xerophila, X. leu- 
copsis, which had built its nest in the rolled-up curtain of a 
waggonette at Lake Boga, in the Swan Hill district, and also a 
note on the plumage and nidification of the Hooded Robin, 
giving his observations on the various changes of plumage in 
these interesting birds. 

Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S., mentioned having noticed the Spine- 



150 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

tailed Swifts at Kew earlier this year than usual. Mr. R. Hall 
said the birds have arrived several weeks earlier than in previous 
seasons. 

EXHIBITS. 

The following were the principal exhibits of the evening : — 
By Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. — Flowers of Melaleuca squarrosa, 
grown at Kew. By Mr. A. Coles. — Five specimens of the Regent 
Bird, Sericulus chrysocephalus, of different ages, illustrating the 
progress of development of their plumage from brown to black 
and yellow; three specimens of the Satin Bower Bird, Ptilonorhyn- 
chus holosiricous, two males and one female, full plumage and 
half plumage ; also a domestic fowl's egg shaped like a 
boomerang. By Mr. C. French, jun. — Black Honey-eater and 
eggs, from Mallee, Victoria. By Mr. J. H. Gatliff. — Pecten laetus, 
P. laqueata, from Japan, P. asperrimus and P laticostatus, from 
Victoria. By Mr. R. Hall. — Xerophila leucopsis, with nest, and 
photograph of position ; skins of Queensland Finches — viz., 
Peophila leucotis, P. acuticauda, P. Gouldim, P. cincta, Stictop- 
tera Bichenovii, Munia castaneithorax, and skin of Hooded Robin, 
immature male, from Victoria. By Messrs. George and Gerald 
Hill. — Collection of destructive insects and their parasites ; also 
collection of injurious fungi, with microscopic slides of their spores. 
By Mr. J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S. — New eucalypt, E. corrugata, 
from Golden Valley, Western Australia (collected by Mr. W. A. 
Sayer). By Mr. J. Paul. — Native flowers, including Epacris 
impressa (pink variety), Cryptostylis longi/olia, and Prasophyllum 
intricatum, collected at Grantville. By Mr. F. M. Reader. — 
A new grass, Stipa acrociliata, in illustration of paper. By 
Mr. H. T. Tisdall — Seaweeds from Ocean Grove, Victoria, 
Cystophora subfarcinata, Sargassum muriculatum, Seirococcus 
axillaris, Gigartina lanecuta, Ptilota coralloidea, Caulerpa 
sculpelliformis, Phacelocarpus sessilis, Curpomitra cabrerce, Calli- 
thamnion verticale, Nitophyllum subfulcrum, Gelidium glanduli- 
folium, Callophyllis Lambertii, and Grateloupia Australia. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 



NOTE ON THE OCCURRENCE OF EUCALYPTUS 
MAC UL AT A IN EAST GIPPSLAND. 

By A. W. Howitt, F.G.S. 

According to the " Eucalyptographia" of the late Baron von 
Mueller this eucalypt is recorded from the vicinity of Port 
Jackson, northwards. Recently, however, Mr. J. H. King, of 
Buchan, has reported the occurrence of this handsome variety on 
the eastern slope of a spur from the Tarra Mountain, on the 
track from Buchan to Orbost, and about 15 miles from the 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 151 

former place, where it forms a small compact colony of a few 
acres in extent. 

Mr. King procured samples of the fruit and foliage, also with 
some difficulty a sample of the timber, which was of extreme 
toughness. A peculiarity of the tree is that the bark forms 
ridges, to be described as inverted flutings, extending a con- 
siderable distance up the boles, which are probably, in the 
largest examples, about 100 feet up to the branches, and about 
3 feet in diameter. The bark is dehiscent from the ground 
upwards, coming off in " clouts," thus producing markings 
which have given rise to the local name of " mottled gum," a 
characteristic and preferable title to that of " spotted gum," used 
in New South Wales and applied in Victoria to Eucalyptus 
goniocalyx. 

Mr. King is not aware of the occurrence of this tree in any 
other part of the district. The samples collected agreed with 
the description in the " Eucalyptographia," and also with the 
type specimens in the " National Herbarium," which Mr. 
Luehmann was so good as to exhibit, one being from Mount 
Dromedary, near Bega, N.S.W. 



ASCENT OF MT. PETER BOTTE, NORTH QUEENS- 
LAND. 

Bv D. Le Souef. 
{Read before the Field Naturalists' 01 u b of Victoria, 8th February, 189*7.) 
I left Melbourne on 3rd October, by the s.s. Arawatta, for 
Cooktown, North Queensland, to endeavour to ascend Mt. Peter 
Botte (named after the Peter Botte in Mauritius), 50 miles south 
of that town. We reached our destination on 13th October, and 
after a delay of two days secured two pack-horses for my luggage, 
and a man to take charge of same, and started on foot for 
" Wyalla," on the Bloomfield River, about 40 miles distant. 
After going along the road for about 5 miles we came to a fine 
bridge over the Annan River. This stream is tidal here and is a 
large body of water ; it is reported to be the favourite haunt of 
crocodiles, and many a beast has lost its life in crossing before 
the bridge was built. The road was dusty, perfectly shadeless, 
as bush fires had swept over the country, burning all the grass, 
and also causing all the white, smooth-barked eucalyptus trees to 
shed their leaves ; water was also scarce, and the sun very hot, 
the coast ranges keeping off most of what little breeze there was. 
About mid-day we arrived at theTrevetan or Black Mountains, so 
called because the granite rocks are all covered with black lichen 
wherever exposed to the weather. These ranges are about a 
mile long and are composed solely of granite boulders, varying 
considerably in size, and whatever earth or vegetation may have 



152 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

once been there, has now all been washed away. In many places 
it is possible to go for a considerable distance down, working 
one's way from crevice to crevice, caused by the rocks resting one 
on the other. Individual rocks scattered about the country were 
also often covered with the same black lichen. Among the 
boulders very dark coloured lizards were numerous, but were too 
nimble to be caught. The Short-eared Rock Wallaby (Petrogcde 
brachyotis) was apparently numerous, but very difficult to catch 
sight of, as they were exceedingly active among the rocks. A skin 
obtained from this locality is in the Melbourne Museum, kindly 
sent by Mr. R. Hislop. They remain in shelter during the day, 
coming out to feed in the open country at night. 

Occasionally a group of fig trees and stinging nettles would be 
found growing on the hillside, the former sending their roots far 
down to obtain sufficient moisture on which to live, but a parasite 
fig tree will grow where no other tree would. The nettle trees 
grow on the mould caused by the dead, decaying leaves of the 
fig tree. 

Proceeding on our way we reached the Ellenvale public-house 
towards evening, having travelled 22 miles. I walked, but my 
companion rode. About sunset numbers of sulphur-crested 
cockatoos assembled on a tall eucalyptus tree, which grew close 
by, to roost, and from their lofty perch they overlooked a China- 
man's garden and maize crop, and the owner had to get up very 
early to be there before the birds commenced to sample his 
produce. A flock of about thirty Banks's Black Cockatoos 
roosted on another tree about a hundred yards away, and I heard 
them uttering their curious cry at various times during the night. 
The Spectacled Flying Fox was also seen passing overhead, on 
its way to some feeding ground. In the beforementioned China- 
man's garden the various vegetables grew to perfection, despite 
the tropical climate, but, being situated on the banks of the 
Annan River, there was a good water supply. 

Next day we resumed our way, and found the road much more 
hilly and with more timber, and at one place passed through a 
belt of scrub and enjoyed the coolness of the deep shade. 
Here the mound of a Megapode was noticed, of considerable 
dimensions, being about fourteen feet wide at the base by six 
feet high ; but the birds had not commenced to lay. Further on 
we passed the junction of two streams — one was beautifully clear, 
but the other very muddy, which was caused by the tin-mining 
carried on near its source. We passed a tin-miner busy washing 
away a small portion of the side of the hill, and the water-race 
he had constructed was 3 miles long. Some portions of the 
track were very hilly, and when scrambling up a sheep incline I 
passed by a pair of Black-breasted Turnix (T. melanogaster ), 
which were exceedingly tame, and let me approach within a foot 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 153 



of them before they slowly walked away, without apparently any 
alarm. On going through a small belt of scrub by a creek we 
passed underneath a Quondong tree, and there were quantities of 
the bright blue ripe fruit lying on the ground. These trees grow 
either near running water or at the bottom of a gully, where their 
roots can get plenty of moisture. The colour of the Victorian 
Quondong when ripe is red, and one rare variety white. When 
near the Trevetan Mountains I was told of a spring from which 
the water flowed during the daytime, but not at night, which 
seems to vary from the general rule, which is the opposite. 
When passing through a small stream we disturbed a green 
water-snake, which quickly took refuge under a stone in the 
deeper part of the water : these reptiles were seen on several 
occasions. The tracks of many small mammals and lizards were 
visible, imprinted on the dusty road ; but during the whole 
distance we only saw the trail of one snake, and that a small 
one. We arrived at our destination during the afternoon. 

Two days after a start was made for Peter Botte. I was accom- 
panied by Mr. Frank Hislop, Mr. Anderson, and six natives. 
Leaving "Wyalla" during the afternoon, we camped at the Bloom- 
field River, 6 miles off, for the night, and an early start was then 
made in a cutter down the coast to Cowie's Creek, about 10 
miles distant, but as wind and tide were against us it was well 
towards evening before we reached it ; our natives had gone 
overland, and arrived there first. We camped for the night on 
the beach, at a spot evidently much used by the natives, judging 
by the heaps of broken shellfish and Zamia nuts. During the 
evening we fished in the creek, which, like all these streams, is 
tidal for some distance up ; but, although mullet and other fish 
were plentiful, especially when the tide was coming in, we found 
they were very shy at being caught. Early next morning we 
started on foot to Emmagen Creek, about 3 miles on, from which 
point we intended striking inland. Our boatman sailed his craft 
round to the same place with our luggage ; but, as he had a 
strong head wind, which meant a wet and unpleasant time for 
those on board, we decided on walking, being told it would not 
take long ; but if we had known how steep the road was we 
would have probably stuck to the cutter. Our track soon left the 
sea coast, and we had to climb some very steep inclines, and the 
grass being dry and slippery made it more difficult. We arrived 
at our destination about ten o'clock, after a very trying tramp ; 
but the cutter did not put in an appearance until late in the after- 
noon. This place had been used as a camp before by timber- 
getters, and we camped for the night in an old humpy, thatched 
with grass ; our natives sleeping alongside the entrance, in a 
separate mia-mia — they, as usual, lying round the fire, which they 
kept burning throughout the night. 



154 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

In the creek were large logs of cedar and other timber awaiting 
transhipment. They were fastened together with chains, and 
long strands of lawyer cane were fixed on to the chains and 
fastened on to the bank, to prevent their being shifted by the 
incoming and outgoing tide. A good deal of cedar comes from 
the scrub in this district. They are cut during the dry season 
and brought to the sea-coast by bullock teams, when they are 
towed up to the sawmills on the Bloomfield River ; but, of 
course, it can only be done in fine weather, and with a fair 
breeze. When a log is very green, and barely floats, a large log 
of lighter weight has to be fastened to it, which acts as a float. 
In the evening we watched the Torres Straits Pigeons, Carpo- 
phaga spilorrhoa, flying out to the islands on the Barrier Reef 
to roost, the islands being about 20 miles away. Hermit crabs 
were numerous in all kinds of shells, of various sizes, which they 
had usurped — I think the crab generally makes use of empty 
dead shells that they find on the beach ; but good shells were 
very scarce, much more so than I expected, and it was quite the 
exception to find a good one ; on the islands of the Barrier Reef 
they were more plentiful. We again fished at sundown, but with 
little success. There are supposed to be crocodiles in these 
streams, in the deep water overshaded with mangrove and other 
trees, but we saw no traces of them ; sharks, however, came in 
with the tide, probably following the shoals of fish, mullet being 
the most plentiful. Early next morning we apportioned each 
one his load, and after breakfast started off in single file. Our 
guide and another had to lightly clear the way for those 
following. The track for the first mile led through open country 
and patches of scrub, and occasionally along the rocky bed of 
some creek, but after a time we entered thick scrub, which 
continued all the rest of the way to Peter Botte. 

A halt was made for lunch alongside a mountain stream, and 
we soon had a fire lighted, and were all glad of a spell, as the 
road was very rough, and the steep mountains we had to climb 
were very exhausting. After a time another start was made, and 
we reached our first camping ground during the afternoon. The 
natives made our humpy of Fan Palm leaves — first a framework 
was formed of light saplings bent over and fastened togetner, and 
then the large leaves of the palm laid on ; these made a rain- 
proof dwelling, and all those of the natives in this district were 
made in the same way, but covered with whatever they could 
get nearest at hand, either the leaves of the Fan Palm, Lawyer 
Palms, grass, or bark. The size depended on the number of 
inmates ; but the natives here make their dwellings considerably 
larger than those at Cardwell. For myself, previous experience 
has taught me that the most comfortable thing to sleep in when 
camping out is a hammock, as one is then comparatively free 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 155 

from insects, &c, &c. Our camp here was 500 feet above sea 
level. Fan Palms grew luxuriantly, and were very beautiful. 
A male Victoria Rifle Bird frequently called out in our 
immediate vicinity, and was far from shy. Allied and other 
Fruit Pigeons were occasionally heard, and a Sulphur-crested 
Cockatoo was shot while feeding in a high tree over our camp. 
The loud note of Quoy's Butcher Bird, Cracticus Quoyii, was 
often heard, but the bird seldom seen. Tracks of domesticated 
pigs gone wild were noticed on several occasions. It gets 
darker in the scrub under the thick canopy of leaves much 
sooner than in the open country, and as the shades of evening 
drew on the notes of the day birds gradually ceased and other 
calls took their place — occasionally a kind of hooting, probably 
of one of the larger owls, then the note of the Boobook Owl, 
Ninox boobook, the shrill loud cry of the Megapode, Megapodius 
tumulus, which roosts near the top of some high scrub tree and 
frequently calls out. The Cicadas also commenced their shrill 
note, having been quite quiet during the day ; crickets and frogs 
added their quota to the noise. Large brown moths flit 
by, and humming moths fly rapidly past. When the twilight has 
passed away the darkness grows intense, and then almost all 
sounds cease, except perhaps the squealing of Flying Foxes, 
Pteropus conspicillutus, as they quarrel over some fruit they 
may be feeding on. Fire-flies also flit about, showing off their 
bright light. Later on, when the moon rose, a few sounds were 
again heard. 

The next day being Sunday we remained in camp, and it was 
exceedingly interesting, sitting quietly alone in the scrub, away 
from the sounds of the camp, and listening to the various notes 
of the birds, many of them being very melodious, and also 
watching their habits as they came within view. We often dis- 
covered where the Fruit Pigeons were feeding by hearing the fruit- 
stones dropping on the leaves below, especially if they fell on 
those of the Fan Palm; and when a shower passed over the noise 
of the falling rain on these leaves could be heard a considerable 
distance. Our camp was situated on the banks of a small creek, 
stones being plentiful in its bed — in fact, you could not find one 
that was not stony. A good many scorpions were found under 
logs, and small black ants were exceedingly numerous, but we 
were thankful there were no green ones or mosquitos. During 
the day the natives shot a Tree Kangaroo for food, and caught 
a young one, but we could not take it with us ; the former was 
soon cooked and eaten. In the rotten logs an earthworm was 
plentiful, which, on being* touched, commenced a series of violent 
wriggles, and if held, generally ended by its coming in half. 
Planarian worms were occasionally seen, and a few land shells, 
but the latter were generally in places of security, either under 



156 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

logs or stones or in hollow branches, waiting for the wet season 
to set in, for at this time of the year the ground in the scrub was 
very dry, except on the mountain tops, where passing clouds kept 
it moist. Close to the camp grew a group of Fan Palms; they 
were very beautiful, reflecting the light from their large shining 
green leaves, which were about three feet in diameter, and up 
some of the tall trees the Lawyer Palm had climbed, many of their 
strong vines being over 150 feet in length. At the edge of the 
scrub a number of Stinging Nettle shrubs were growing, and very 
pretty they looked, with their large, soft-looking dark green leaves. 
I have often heard it stated by others that, if passing through or 
close to a clump of these plants the leaves of which have been 
disturbed by passing cattle or otherwise, a fine powder seems 
to get into the nose and eyes, causing considerable and un- 
pleasant irritation. 

At seven o'clock on Monday morning we started off again, but 
left some of our luggage behind, as there was more than we could 
conveniently carry. We made it as secure as possible, as a 
Dingo had been heard howling during the previous night, and we 
did not want him to get at it. Our track lay up steep mountain 
sides, all the more difficult from our each having a good load to 
carry, which only left one hand free ; sometimes we had to 
climb from rock to rock up a watercourse, then again on narrow 
ridges, which were generally covered with loose stones, creepers, 
roots, &c. 

At last we reached the narrow saddle of the range we were 
climbing, and found it 2,400 feet high and 1,900 feet above our 
last camping place. The trees were all very stunted, and tree 
and other ferns plentiful. Everything was dewy from the passing 
clouds, and the vegetation luxuriant. On climbing to the top of 
a Fig tree we obtained an extensive and beautiful view. Fan Palms 
were absent ; they do not seem to grow here at the altitude 
of 600 feet, but other kinds were plentiful. The fallen timber, 
and also stones, were generally covered with mosses of different 
kinds, and various land shells were noticed. We saw numerous 
traces of Bennett's Tree Kangaroo, Dendrologus Bennettianus, 
and observed Victoria Rifle Birds, Ptilorhis Victories, Queensland 
Cat Birds, Ailurcedus maculosus, Noisy Pittas, Pitta strepitans, 
var. simillima, Spalding's Orthonyx, Orthonyx Spaldingi, Shrike 
Thrushes, Tallegallas, Tallegallus Lathami, Quoy's Butcher Bird, 
Sulphur-crested Cockatoos, Superb and other Fruit Pigeons. We 
had lunch on the banks of a mountain stream, at the elevation of 
2,000 feet. The scrub was very dense, and often difficult to get 
through, Lawyer Palms being, unfortunately for us, plentiful, and 
some of their canes were very long, trailing on the dark-coloured 
ground like long, green snakes, and very slippery to tread on. 
In some places the ground was covered with loose stones, small 



THE VICTOKIAN NATURALIST. 157 

ferns and roots, the surface soil having evidently been washed 
away, and had left a network of roots and stones exposed, many 
being covered with moss; but it was very rough to walk over. 
Lycopodium also occasionally covered the ground. Close to our 
camping place were some high granite rocks, almost covered with 
orchids, ferns, creepers, and moss. Orchids of various kinds 
were also noticed on many of the trees. On having rested we 
started again, and after about two hours' walking and stumbling 
through thick scrub, and crossing three streams, we arrived at 
our camp, which was well situated at the base of a huge granite 
boulder, about 20 feet high, 40 feet long, and 15 feet wide, and 
on the top were growing Fig trees and other shrubs, and in the 
neighbourhood were found many similar large isolated granite 
boulders, showing that the soil is being gradually washed away. 

Our height above sea level was 2,000 feet. We soon had our 
tent fixed up and fires burning. The natives preferred sleeping 
round their fires, under the shelter of the rock, to building a 
humpy. I have often read about natives being early risers, but 
those I have come in contact with are certainly not so, as a picture 
taken of the camp at 8 a.m. will show. I think hunger was the 
principal inducement for them to get up. Within twenty yards 
of our tent was the mound or nest of a Tallegalla, very pictur- 
esquely situated at the foot of a big Kauri Pine and a palm, but 
the birds had not yet commenced laying in it. Several other 
mounds were found in the neighbourhood, and the natives going 
out soon brought back a supply of eggs, and also a Bennett's 
Tree Kangaroo they had shot. Before cooking it they beat it with 
the back of a tomahawk and broke most of its bones, especially 
the legs and arms. They then threw it on the fire as it was, and 
singeing off the hair, left it for a short time on the fire. They then 
opened it and removed the entrails, which were thrown away, but 
the paunch, being emptied, was not wasted, and, with the liver, 
was placed on the fire to cook. The hind feet and the tail were 
next cut off and placed on the fire. The rest of the body was then 
placed on its back on a previously prepared fire, which when first 
made up had a lot of stones placed on it and when the fire had 
burned down, and the stones nearly red-hot, a place on them was 
scraped out on which to place the kangaroo, the upper surface 
of the meat being also covered with the heated stones; it was then 
left until cooked. When the amount to be cooked is small it is 
often covered with green leaves, which help to keep the steam 
and heat in and cook the meat more quickly. When the feet 
were sufficiently cooked they pulled off the bare skin of the 
cushion and breaking the toes one by one, eat the flesh and fat 
that may be there. The tail they cut off bit by bit at the joints 
and eat what they can get. When the wallaby is sufficiently 
cooked they cut it up and divide it between them. What they 



158 THE V1CT0HIAN NATUKALIST. 

cannot eat then is put on one side until they are hungry again. 
Birds and other things they kill are cooked in the same way, but 
if they are very hungry they won't trouble about the stones. It 
was astonishing how much meat they could get through at one 
meal. What food they got themselves they counted as extra, as 
they always expected us to give them the usual quantity at meal 
time. I used to wonder why the natives shifted their camp so often ; 
but I don't now, as, although we were only in ours three days, the 
amount of evil-smelling refuse that the natives had thrown away 
close to the camp was considerable, and the odour was perceptible 
on the third day before the camp even came in sight, and being 
in thick scrub, there was not much breeze to carry it off, and flies 
and ants were attracted in numbers. If we had had several dogs, 
instead of only one, it might not have been so bad. The small 
black ants were very plentiful — too much so for us — but we 
found no green ants above 500 feet ; but down near the sea-coast 
they were, practically speaking, everywhere, both in the scrub 
and open country. Early next morning we were awakened by 
the notes of the different birds. Quoy's Butcher Bird seems to 
commence first. Many of the calls were very curious, as, for in- 
stance, Newton's Bower-Bird, Prionodnra Newtoniana, makes a 
noise exactly like a frog does when being caught. Then, again, 
the Queensland Cat-bird, Orthonyx, and the Pitta all have strange 
cries. A Pheasant-tail Pigeon, Macropygia j^hasianella, was shot 
in a tree over our heads, and was plucked and eaten by the blacks 
within fourteen minutes of being shot. 

After breakfast a start was made for Peter Botte, about a mile 
distant. We could only obtain a view of it from our camp by 
climbing up a tree and so getting above the surrounding scrub ; but 
our old guide led the way, marking a track as he went along. We 
soon crossed one romantic-looking stream, the bed being full of 
big boulders, and the water cold and clear, but no fish were seen 
in it. After a time we suddenly*came on about two acres of solid 
bare granite rock, covered with black lichen ; it was a great 
relief to get out of the scrub and to be able to get a more distant 
view. On ascending to the upper portion we caught sight of 
Peter Botte, seemingly quite close, with its higher peak enveloped 
in clouds. In the hollows in the rock a grassy-looking plant grew 
very thickly ; it clung to the rock, and being very tough, was 
difficult to get off; the ends of its narrow leaves were very sharp 
and prickly, but we did not find that out until my companion sat 
down on its soft-locking surface to rest — but he did not stay there 
long. There was a beautiful ground orchid in flower, its petals 
being deep pink, covered with black spots, and in the hollows 
between the rocks patches of coral fern and several other plants 
grew, which I noticed were similar to those in Gippsland, Victoria. 

On passing on we found a valley between ourselves and our 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



April, i$gy. 




SUMMIT OF MOUNT PETER BOTTE, NORTH QUEENSLAND. 



From negative by D. le souef 



THE VICTORIAN NATUKALIST. 159 

goal, and it was a good hour's stiff walk and climb before we got 
to the foot of it. When looking at these hills from a distance, 
they, being all covered with scrub, look smooth and easy to travel 
over, but in point of fact their surface is mostly covered with 
masses of rock, especially in the bed of any mountain stream, 
which washes the soil away to the depths of twenty feet or more, 
and we had a good deal of difficulty in working our way up one 
of these streams, having to crawl through holes, clamber along 
edges, jump over deep crevices, &c, and were thankful at last to 
reach the foot of the big rock which we had come so far to 
ascend. Only one of our natives, Blucher, would attempt to 
ascend with us, but when he had got half-way up the smaller 
point he went down again to join the others, and they soon 
shouted up to us that they were going back to the camp, which 
they did, marking a track for us to follow. On our ascending a 
scrub-covered rift we found ourselves between the two tops of the 
mountain, and ascending the smaller (native name Ginpure, 
meaning younger sister), up a crack in the rock, in which some 
small tough shrubs were growing, we reached the top. My 
half-plate camera was often a source of difficulty in climbing. 
We were here well rewarded for our exertion by the magnificent 
view we had of the large, solid, bell-shaped mass of grey granite 
rock which constituted the top of Peter Botte (native name 
Alpaboolal, meaning big top, or Barbar, meaning elder sister). 
It was leaning well over towards us, and we saw within three feet 
of the top and clinging to the bare rock an orchid growing, with 
masses of white flowers and with white and yellow butterflies 
flying about it. We had an extensive panorama of the 
surrounding country, and very beautiful it was — green, soft- 
looking, scrub-covered mountains and hills everywhere, in various 
shades of colour, and passing clouds bathing parts in shadow 
as they sailed along. 

On looking out towards the Barrier Reef, we could discern the 
white sand patches of the exposed reefs and islands, the bright 
sunlight making them appear very distinct, but the horizon was 
so far off that we could not make out the difference between it 
and the clouds, and the white reefs on first sight looked as if they 
were themselves the clouds above the horizon. The Barrier Reef 
was about thirty miles from where we were, but we could make 
out the intricate channels and the various islands, but not the 
edge of the reef itself, probably being obscured by mist from 
breaking water. We could just discern "Wyalla" in the distance, 
the place from which we had started, but a big bush fire inter- 
vening prevented us from seeing it very clearly. We found a 
little stunted vegetation growing in the shelter of the loose rocks 
lying about, but there was practically no soil to sustain anything. 
One shrub which grows into a tree on suitable soil was about two 



160 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 



feet high, but its long scarlet flowers were pretty among the dark 
foliage, and its wood was very strong. After having taken photo- 
graphs we descended again to the top of the before-mentioned 
rift, and found a natural bridge formed by two blocks of stone 
having fallen down and jammed in a crevice, which enabled us 
to get on to the base of the larger summit, and as this was the 
only means of access we were glad to make use of it. Then by the 
aid of some small bushes we pulled ourselves up and scrambled 
through stunted vegetation round the base ; when we looked up, 
we had a sense of feeling very small, with the large mass of rock 
overhanging us. As we passed along we found some places 
very awkward to negotiate ; we had to squeeze through narrow 
crevices, then again scramble through small holes, or go care- 
fully, clinging on to the shrubs near the edge. When we had got 
nearly round to the leaning side we thought our progress barred, 
but by dint of careful climbing we were enabled to get up a 
narrow crevice, where some flat pieces of rock had been detached, 
probably by frost, and the edge they left gave us a sufficient but 
uncertain foothold. One had to go well ahead of the other, for 
fear of detaching any portion of the rock, which would probably 
have been to the detriment of the one following. We now soon 
reached the highest point we could get to — a small platform of 
bare rock, with some big blocks of stone lying close to the central 
rock and overhanging the forest some 300 feet below. From 
this point we had an extensive view of the adjoining country. An 
intervening rugged cloud-capped range prevented our seeing Port 
Douglas, a few miles to the south. We found it quite impossible 
to ascend any further, and our present height was a little over 
3,000 feet. We obtained a good view of the top, which consisted 
of an enormous block of granite, perpendicular on one side and 
hanging over on the other. On the top was a detached fragment, 
around the edges of which a little vegetation grew. 

As the day was well advanced, we started on our return, 
and followed the track the natives had made for us. We had 
not gone far before we saw and heard a Tooth-billed Bower Bird, 
Sceno-pceus dentirostris, and shortly after came on its playground. 
It cannot be called a bower, as the bird merely scratches the 
dead leaves and rubbish off a piece of ground measuring about 
3 feet by 2 feet, on which it places a few green leaves, with their 
upper surface on the ground and their backs exposed to view, 
which, of course, made them more conspicuous, being of a lighter 
colour. They were not placed in any regular order any more 
than being about the same distance apart, namely, about 4 inches, 
and the number of leaves varied in the different playgrounds from 
8 and upwards. I examined over a dozen different grounds, and 
did not find any trace of berries, shells, &c, but simply the green 
leaves, and they were always fresh, and seemed as if picked daily. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 161 

The place chosen was generally under a bush or thick vegetation, 
and the birds seemed to be fond of frequenting their ground and 
uttering their clear liquid notes, which can hardly be called a 
song; and when a bird was heard warbling in the thicket we 
were almost sure of finding a playing ground at the place where 
we had heard the bird. The loud call of Spalding's Orthonyx 
was also several times heard, and occasionally we got a glimpse 
of them as they hurried away, keeping on the ground as much as 
possible, and dodging behind the rocks. We always knew when 
we were in the locality of these birds by seeing the dead leaves, 
by which the surface was more or less covered, scraped up and 
scattered about as they hunted for their insect food. They 
often seem to go about in companies, and occasionally about a 
dozen birds would collect together on a rock and go through all 
sorts of antics, uttering at the same time curious sounds, and 
on being disturbed they would all scuttle away in different 
directions. Several unfinished nests were found, either built on 
the ground or on a rock, up against some object. They were 
large domed structures of stick and leaves, lined plentifully with 
green moss. They lay one white egg. The male Coachwhip 
Bird, Psophodes crepitans, was heard uttering its note. His mate 
was probably nesting, and therefore could not finish up with her 
" twite-twite," which otherwise she generally does. The note 
varies slightly from the southern form. We saw traces of the 
Tree Kangaroo, and also of the Tiger Cat, and passed a Scrub 
Turkey (Tallegalla) mound, but there were no eggs yet. The 
track back to the clear space on the rocks, that the natives had 
travelled along and marked, was at times difficult to follow, 
especially among the big boulders, and we had to pass through 
some curious places. Once our only means of progress was 
through a long crevice between some rocks, and there was just 
about room to move along, and at one part sideways. We then 
came to a place where we could not trace any track, but found 
after a time that the natives had climbed down to a small hole 
between two big boulders, and wriggled through it into an 
opening which enabled them to get on. We went the same way, 
but I could not get through that hole in a hurry, and generally 
got stuck when half way. 

Next day we took another journey to the mountain, but without 
any natives, and climbed up to the same spot we had reached the 
day previous. On the various broken rocks and boulders round the 
base of the centre cone were many orchids of different kinds, but 
mostly small, and the air was laden with the perfume of flowers ; 
Lycopodium, a small fern, also grew in the crevices. When 
looking down on the scrub below us the air seemed full of 
melody of the calls of various birds. It was surprising how far up 
the sound of their notes travelled. The Lesser White Goshawk, 



162 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Astur NovcB-Hollandice, sub-sp. lencosovius, was noticed sailing 
along on the look-out for some unfortunate bird. Sulphur-crested 
Cockatoos were also conspicuous against the dark green as they 
flew over the scrub. The various shades of green made the scrub 
look very pretty, especially with the tops of the graceful palms 
and the ferns showing through ; the latter have very thin stems 
with a hard exterior, and are rarely straight, and grow to the 
height of thirty feet. Pigeons seem fond of building their fragile 
nests on their slender crowns. The Victorian tree ferns have 
thick stems, and are mostly straight, and have far larger crowns 
than these. 

Very few insects were noticed. The small black ant was very 
plentiful, also a much larger black variety which canies its 
abdomen turned up over its back. It has long legs, the lower 
half of which is yellow. The insect can travel very fast when 
disturbed, but made no attempt to bite one — like the green ant, 
for instance. One kind of lizard was seen, and only one snake 
during the whole of our trip, and that a native reported to have 
seen going under a rock, which from his description was probably 
a Black Snake, Pseudechys porphyriacus. In a small patch of 
scrub well up the mountain side a pair of Newton's Bower-Birds 
were noticed and one secured, but the male was in immature 
plumage. We did not see any of their wonderful bowers. 

The perfume of some of the flowers on the scrub trees was very 
sweet, and one small orchid had its petal on a curious hinge, 
which enabled the said petal to move backward and forward as 
the breeze moved the flower. On our way back we passed under 
a tree laden with white sweet-scented flowers. The honey-eaters 
were very busy securing the honey with thin brush-tipped tongues ; 
one or two were shot for identification, but the others were little 
disturbed by the sound of the gun. The fallen birds were often 
difficult to find among the rocks, unless one saw exactly where 
they fell. A honey-eater was also noticed busy having a bath in a 
pool of water which was held in a shallow hollow in the fork of 
a tree, about 30 feet from the ground. It was curious to notice 
how the roots of some of the trees grew downwards round the 
rocks, and as they grew spread out into a regular network, 
clinging on to the face of the boulder. Sometimes they reached 
the soil, but at other times the distance was too great. The 
shade caused by the dense foliage of the trees above enabled 
many plants to obtain sufficient moisture on the rocks with little 
soil, that otherwise would have been burnt up and destroyed. 
The effect is occasionally noticed where a large tree has fallen and 
so made an opening for the sun to penetrate. Several times we 
noticed what I would term rats' feeding-places, where they had 
gathered together the hard-shelled native almonds and other nuts, 
and made a little heap of their empty husks, generally alongside 



THK VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 163 

the root of a tree. A similar habit was noticed with regard to 
the Noisy Pitta, which lives largely on snails, and it seems to have 
its favourite stone for breaking them on, somewhat similar to the 
European Song Thrush, and heaps of broken land shells were sure 
to be found there. 

On our return to camp we found the six natives who had 
promised to go out collecting all day had, practically speaking, 
done nothing except getting a few Scrub Turkey eggs for 
themselves, and not only that, but one lazy individual, named 
Blucher, had persuaded the others that they had been away long 
enough, and they had therefore determined to return on the 
fourth day, instead of staying ten as we had agreed upon. As 
the men had been paid beforehand we had no hold over them, 
and perforce had to return when they did, as we could not carry 
our luggage down without their assistance. During the night we 
heard what was probably the Rufous Owl (Ninox rufa) hooting. 
Our dog got excited, and ran a short distance into the scrub 
barking on two or three occasions, and the natives declared that 
he smelt a Dingo, but we did not hear or see one. I burnt some 
magnesium ribbon, and let the flare light up the scrub to amuse 
and assure the natives. A rat kept gnawing at our damper 
during the early part of the night, and ran over one of my com- 
panions' faces in the darkness, so one of us quietly got a short 
stick ready, poising it over where the sound came from, and I 
then lighted the magnesium ribbon, which showed the rat's where- 
abouts, and before he recovered from his astonishment he was 
killed, and was found to be the long-haired species, Hapalotis 
hirsutus. We made our fire-shovel, spoons, plates, and candle- 
stick out of bark. The number of different kinds of trees was 
considerable, many being hard and others soft wood. Some 
splendid examples of kauri pine grew close by, and on picking up 
some branches of a dead scrub tree, which had fallen probably 
many years before, we found it exceedingly hard and perfectly 
sound, and on putting them on the fire they burnt readily and 
brightly, emitting black smoke, which smelt exactly like pitch 
when burning, and at the end of the branches the heat of the fire 
caused a substance to exude from a small cavity in the centre 
which was quite black and had all the appearance and consistency 
of pitch, and whenever we wanted to have a bright fire we had 
only to put on a few of these sticks. When burnt they left a 
white ash. I brought a sample of the wood with me, but could 
not find a living tree that I could identify with the dead one, 
although probably they were plentiful enough; it is locally known 
as the Kerosene Tree. Softwood trees on dying are very soon 
riddled with holes by larvae of the large black and other beetles. 
The natives are very fond of this larvae, and cut up softwood 
decaying tops in the hope of finding some, but the hardwood 



164 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

trees last for years, and do not seem to be attacked by insects in 
the same way. 

Our last day was spent in collecting in the neighbourhood of the 
camp. In a creek near by the deep note of a frog was often heard, 
and again the shrill notes of a smaller kind. Tadpoles were seen 
in the shallow holes. In a beautiful Sago Palm on the bank of 
a creek, a Cat Bird had its nest with two young ones. And in the 
clear water the long green vines of the Lawyer Palm were often 
noticed trailing. Crested Pigeons, Sopholaimus antarcticus, were 
seen on several occasions, and two secured. A curious cobweb 
was observed on a large rotten log: the spider had a tunnel into 
the soft wood, the sides of which were well lined with cobweb, 
and using that as a centre, had made a closely constructed web 
radiating all round against the log. The natives brought in two 
Bennett's Tree Kangaroos they had shot, and one of them, a 
male, had one of its ears completely bitten off, which the natives 
said had been done by a Tiger Cat, but the chances are that if 
a Tiger Cat could manage to chew the ear off it would certainly 
have had to kill the animal first, as the kangaroo would not 
be likely to sit quietly under the operation. It puzzled me a good 
deal to find how it was done and what did it ; but on leaving 
" Wyalla " for Melbourne, two Tree Kangaroos were placed in a 
box together — one an old male, the other a female — and it was not 
long before the female got hold of the ear of the male and chewed it 
until very little was left, and also scratched his face about a good 
deal, so that it is very evident that in a state of nature they do the 
same thing. The old male seemed to bear it very patiently, but 
why the female should have that habit, or why the male should 
let them do it, I cannot explain, unless it be a sign of affection. 
During the evening the blacks cooked their wallabies, and also a 
Tallegalla, and eat the bird and one of the wallabies, the other 
being given to our old guide, who put it on one side until hungry. 

Next morning an early start was made, walking in single file as 
usual. Merrgo, our dog, found several Scrub Turkeys, or Talle- 
gallas, for us, and we passed two mounds. The male bird seems 
to make their nesting mound entirely by himself, jealously keep- 
ing the hens away, and if they attempt to scratch holes in the 
mound before he considers it ready he beats them off unmerci- 
fully. The birds we saw at the mounds were males ; they are 
generally in its neighbourhood, and keep it in repair. They have 
stronger legs and feet than the hen birds. These actions I have 
noticed by watching the birds in captivity. Their mounds are 
composed principally of leaves and a few sticks, but very 
little soil, not more than would naturally cling to the leaves as 
they were being gathered together. Sixteen eggs seem to be a 
full clutch. Mr. Hislop informed me that in dry weather the 
eggs have a greater quantity of leaves over them than in wet. In 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 165 

passing over a creek with pools of clear water, we noticed many 
crustaceans, and their principal occupation seemed to be in 
keeping out of one another's way, especially the smaller ones 
away from the bigger ; some of them had lost their large claw, 
probably in fighting. We passed a high tree in which a flock of 
Shining Calornis, Calomis metallica, were nesting. The ground 
below was, as usual, covered with nutmeg seeds, but remember- 
ing my former experience with the ticks I did not go under it. 
Blue and other butterflies were seen flitting about the open spaces 
over the creeks. 

We arrived at our previous camp at midday, being able to 
travel faster down hill, and found all our goods intact, and 
after an hour's rest started off again for the coast with all our 
luggage, and were well laden, and arrived at Emmergen Creek 
before sundown, after a hard day's journey and rough and often 
difficult climbing, which I have no desire to undertake again. 
Four of the natives started off again towards the Bloomfield 
River, to a blacks' camp some distance off, but of course 
they took no luggage, as we had arranged for the cutter to 
come round for us and our belongings. I noticed that the 
soles of the feet of the blacks was nearly white. We felt 
a few sandflies, which were absent from the higher country. 
When I was some little distance from the camp five men 
carrying their swags came up to me and commenced talking 
in Italian. They couldn't muster one sentence in English 
between them, and would not talk French. They said they 
were travelling overland to Cape York and were Italians. I 
brought them on to our camp, which my companions did not 
appreciate, as they at once took them to be French convicts just 
landed, and such they afterwards proved to be, so we sent our 
black boy on with them to where there was fresh water, so that 
they could camp there, but on going over later in the evening I 
found that they had not done so. Our old guide, who had had 
a cooked Tree Kangaroo given him at our highest camp, but was 
not sufficiently hungry to eat it, kept it for his breakfast, but not 
having the necessary appetite then, and not liking to waste it, he 
brought it down to this camp, carrying it principally, when in the 
open country, on his head. The day was very hot and flies 
troublesome, and his looked-forward-to meal was getting high and 
lively. In the evening he ate the food we gave him, and once 
more put his kangaroo on the roof of his humpy to keep for his 
breakfast ; but it couldn't last for ever, and finally he had to 
regretfully leave it behind uneaten. 

During the evening a small shark was caught in the creek, and 
our old native went out wading in the shallow sea, as the tide 
was very far out, and speared three fish. I took some photo- 
graphs here of the Mangrove trees, to show the wonderful way 



166 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

they have of securing a roothold on the sand and mud, and the 
various ways their roots grow : not only do they drop their long- 
pointed single seed into the sand or mud below, into which if it 
sticks it would grow like a cutting, but they send down long 
roots from various branches high up, which when they reach the 
ground take root, and are an additional source of strength to 
enable the tree to withstand the force of the incoming tide and 
strong winds, as they often grow a long way out from the shore, 
and only have the surface of the sand exposed for a short time 
at low tide ; their roots also grow in a loop-like fashion, the 
upper portion being out of the ground at varying distances from 
two feet downwards, and they soon form a regular network round 
the tree, which is then well able to withstand the storms by 
which it may be assailed. On several occasions we heard the 
Flinders Cuckoo, Eudynamis cyanocephala, uttering its call during 
the night, keeping the Megapodes company, and it was generally 
to be seen among the tops of the trees feeding on fruit. 

Next day I started for " Wyalla" on foot, with the guide, the 
others remaining for the cutter, which was due next day. The 
distance was 20 miles, and many portions of the road very steep, 
and the small loose stones often made walking very difficult. 
We did not see any signs of the supposed New Caledonian 
escapees, but we found afterwards that they were following close 
on our tracks, but keeping out of sight. Many of the views we 
obtained from some of the high hills we traversed were very 
extensive and beautiful. We flushed a Long-tailed Nightjar from 
the ground close to the track, and found it was sitting on its two 
eggs, no nest being made. The country passed over was open 
forest, and not much timber, what there was being small, and 
very little protection from the burning sun. A Sulphur-crested 
Cockatoo, Gacatua galerita, was disturbed from the hollow of a 
tree, where it probably had its nest. These birds are fairly 
plentiful all over the district, both in the scrub and open forest 
country, and were busy nesting at this time of the year. They 
often fly very high when passing from one place to another. 
When going through a belt of scrub near the Bloomfield River 
we heard a frog calling out just off the track, and on my going 
up to see the cause found a snake had caught it by the hind leg ; 
when it saw me close by, it let go the frog and hurriedly departed, 
the frog not forgetting to do the same, only in an opposite 
direction. When the snake let go, and seemed to be coming our 
way in a hurry, the old guide, with a yell, gave two or three quick, 
vigorous jumps to get out of the way ; but the snake was harm- 
less, and just as anxious to get out of his way as he was of it. 
A tree where some Shining Calornis were nesting was passed, 
and the noise they made could be heard for a considerable 
distance ; viewed from afar, they looked like a swarm of bees 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 167 

round their nests. We crossed over the Thompson River, but, 
being the dry season, there was not much water in it. At one 
place on the side of our track, which led down a very steep hill, 
a big bullock had slipped and fallen down, but a small tree had 
arrested it in its course down hill ; but the poor beast, not 
having strength to rise from the difficult position in which it had 
fallen, had died where it lay. On the bank of the Bloomfield 
River was a small but well-kept coffee plantation ; the trees 
appeared to be thriving and free from disease. The guide 
remained at the river, while I, after being ferried across, walked 
on to " Wyalla," arriving there about four o'clock p.m. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF VICTORIA. 

No. II. 

By F. M. Reader. Communicated by C Frost, F.L.S. 

(Bead before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 8th March, 1897.) 

Stipa acrociliata, sp. nov., F. M. Reader. 

An elegant, tall, rather slender, perennial grass. Rootstock 
creeping, thickened ; rootlets densely invested with greyish or 
brown fibrils. 

Culms from about i}4-$ feet high, smooth, striate, and 
furrowed, occasionally proliferous at the nodes and geniculate 
towards the base. Culms and leaves frequently glaucous. 

Leaves flat, often involute when dry, from yk-3/% of an inch 
wide, the lower upwards to 2 feet long, the upper gradually 
shorter ; margin and lower side scabrous. 

Ligule broad, ^ inch long, jagged, without cilige. 

Panicle frequently of a purplish colour, long, erect, shining, 
from under 1 foot to 20 inches long, finally much spreading. 
Branches verticillate, long, capillary, scabrous. 

Spikelets usually truncate at the base, }£-% inch long, on 
short or long capillary pedicels. 

Empty glumes, with usually three unequal teeth, ciliolate 
towards the summit ; teeth crested with minute cilise. 

Outer empty glume y 2 inch long, moderately and gradually 
attenuated, strongly three-veined ; central vein ciliolate at the 
back, secondary veins only slightly ciliolate. 

Inner glume shorter, fi inch long, blunt, strongly three or 
four-veined. 

Flowering glume invested with greyish appressed or somewhat 
spreading hairs, with a circle of short hairs at the base. 

Awn capillary, from 2 3 inches long, tortuous below, slightly 
bent below the middle, beset with short hairs to the bent, 
scabrous above. 

Palea shorter than the glume, broad linear, two-veined, ciliolate 
at the back and summit. 



168 THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST. 

Lodicules narrow. Grain loose, narrow }i inch long. 

Flowering October, November. — Sandy desert, Lowan shire. 
1895, F. Reader. 

The late Baron v. Mueller provisionally named this species 
Stipa Readeri, pending an examination and close comparison 
with some West Australian species. 

In aspect it is quite different from any other species and the 
tallest of all of them. 

The section of the genus Stipa, with the flowering glumes 
silky-hairy and the elongated and non-ciliated ligule, to which 
this species belongs, comprise the West Australian S. compressa, 
S. Drummondii, S. pycnostachya and the well-known S. setacea, 
the latter occurring in all the colonies. 

From these S. acrociliata may be readily discerned by its 
height, its broad and flat, long, lower leaves, and the character- 
istic peculiarities of its glumes. 



RELIQUIAE MUELLERIAN^E : 

DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW AUSTRALIAN PLANTS IN 

THE NATIONAL HERBARIUM, MELBOURNE. 

By J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., Curator. 
(Bead before Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 8th March, 1897.) 
Eucalyptus corrugata, Luehmann. 

A tree attaining about 30 ft. in height, with a smooth ashy-grey 
bark. Leaves on rather long petioles, mostly narrow-lanceolar, 
slightly falcate, narrowed at the base, acuminate, 3 in. to 4 in. 
long, yi in. to rarely 2 /i in. broad, rather thick, dark green and 
very shining on both sides, black-dotted, the lateral veins rather 
numerous and spreading, but hardly visible without a lens, the 
marginal vein close to the edge. Peduncles axillary or lateral, 
nearly terete, about half an inch long, bearing an umbel of 3 to 5 
shortly pedicellate flowers. Calyx-tube hemispherical, with 6 to 
8 very prominent ridges, about ^ in. across, brownish, shining. 
Operculum hemispherical, with ridges similar to those of the 
calyx. Stamens mostly inflected in bud ; anthers oblong, opening 
by parallel longitudinal slits. Fruit hemispherical, not much 
larger than the flowering calyx, mostly 4-celled, nearly flat-topped, 
the valves shortly protruding. 

Golden Valley, in the interior of Western Australia, W. A. 
Sayer. 

This species is evidently allied to E. incrassata, but none of 
the forms of that species have such high ridges nor the same 
hemispheric shape of the calyx and corolla. E. pachyphylla, 
which has also prominent ribs, can be easily distinguished by the 
broader dull-coloured leaves, as well as other characters. 



§11^ 



Vol. XIII.— No. i. 



April, 1896 



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COISTTEUTS. 

The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria 

Excursion to Willsmere 

Further Notes from Albatross Island — Narrative of 
a Second Trip. By J. Gabriel, F.L.S 

The Flight of the Albatross. By H. P. C. Ashworth . 

On the Use of Turpentine in Microscopic Work 



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BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 

Monday, Hth IVIay, 1896, sit 8 p.m. 

i. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Black Rock, from Mr. J. Shephard. 

Report of Excursion to Biological School, from Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A. 

2. Election of Members. 

Proposer Seconder 

Mr. J. Brunning .. Mr. G. E. Shepherd ... Mr. A. Coles. 

3. Nominations for Membership. 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing the full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

4. General Business. 

Nominations (to be in writing) for Office-bearers for year 1896-97. 
Election of two Auditors. 

5. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

By Rev. W. Fielder, "The Intermediate Hosts of Fluke— Third Note." 
By Mr. G. A. Keartland, " Ornithological Notes from Central Australia." 

6. Reading of Natural History Notes. 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

7. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 



$k EXCURSIONS. &> 

Monday, 25TH May. — Port Phillip Bay. Under the leadership of Mr. J. 
Gabriel, F. L.S. Start from the Gem Pier, Williamstown, at 10 a.m. Object : 
Dredging. 

Monday, 25TH May. — Lilydale. Under the leadership of Mr. F. G. A. 
Barnard. Start from Prince's Bridge station, at 7 a.m. The leader will meet 
the party either at Hawthorn or on arrival at Lilydale. Object : Fern 
Collecting. 



ANNUAL CONVERSAZIONE. 

The Annual Conversazione will be held in the Athenteum, on Thursday 
and Friday, 28th and 29th inst. Members are urgently requested to 
make the exhibition of specimens as complete as possible, and to send in 
particulars of their exhibits not later than 16th inst. to ensure allotment of 
space and insertion in catalogue. Extra tickets may be obtained from the 
Hon. Secretary at one shilling each, and it will further the success of the 
Conversazione if members will do their utmost to dispose of as many tickets as 
possible. Messrs. Frost, Gabriel and T. S. Hall, M.A., have been appointed 
as executive committee to have complete control of the arrangements and 
spacing of exhibits. 



May, 1S96 





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page ; 

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O O ILT T IE 2sT T S . 

The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria 

A Trip to Mali.acoota. By D. Le Souef 

A New Rotifer — Lacinularia Elongata. By J. Shephard 22 

Intermediate Hosts ok Fluke— Third Note. By Rev. 

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BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 

IVIo»xcii»,y , 8th June, X896, slX, 8 p.m. 

i. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Dredging Excursion in Port Phillip Bay, from Mr. J. Gabriel. 
Report of Excursion to Lilydale, from Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. 

2. Election of Members. 



Proposer 






Seconder 


Mr. L. Arendts Mr. D. M 'Alpine ... 


Mr, 


C. 


French (sen.) 


Miss Brent ... Mr. D. Le Souef ... 


Mr. 


II. 


P. C. Ashworth 


Mr. F. Buckie ... Mr. G. A. Keartland 


Mr. 


D. 


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Rev. J. S. Hart Mr. F. G. A. Barnard 


Mr. 


T. 


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Nominations for Membership. 









Members making nominations will oblige by handing the full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

4. General Business. 

Consideration of Annual Report and Balance Sheet for 1895-96. 
Election of Office-bearers for 1S96-97. 

The following nominations have been made : — 
President — Professor Baldwin Spencer, M.A. 
Vice-Presidents— Mr. C. French, FL.S., Mr. J. Shephard. 
Hon. Treasurer— Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S. 
Hon. Librarian — Mr. O. A. Sayce. 
Hon. Secretary— Mr. C. French, jun. 
CoMMiTTEE-Messrs. H. P. C. Ashworth, D. Best, J. Gabriel, T. S. Hall, M.A., 

H. R. Hogg, C. M. Maplestone, F. Spry, W. Stickland, W. Stone, G. Sweet, 

H. T. Tisdall, and F. Wise would. 

5. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

By Mr. H. R. Hogg, " On the Flight of Sea Birds." 

By Mr. C. C. Brittlebank, " The Miocene Rocks of Bacchus Marsh." 

i5. Reading of Natural History Notes. 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

7. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 



•8 EXCURSIONS, i* 

Saturday, 13TH June. — Keilor, via St. Albans. Under the leadership 
of Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A. Start from Spencer Street station, at 12.15 P- m - 
Object : Geology. 




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he records. 



COlSrTEITTS. 



The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria 

Field Naturalists' Club Conversazione 

Notes on the Habits of Wood Swallows. By Robert 
Hall 

A Catalogue of Victorian Heterocera. By Oswald B. 
Lower, F.E.S. 



PAGE 
SO 

34 
36 
4i 









) m 



: 






•J**»RICE SIXPENCE.)* 



Agents fov <&\xvope ; 
DUJ^ATJ & CO., 37 S@&o Square, London. 




Field Nafu pa lists' Club of Victoria. 



ROOMS— ROYAL SOCIETY'S HALL, VICTORIA ST., MELBOURNE. 



BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 

Monday, 13th July, 1896, ei* 8 p.m. 

i. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Keilor, from T. S. Hall, M.A. 

2. Nominations for Membership. 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing the full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

3. General Business. 

4. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

By Mr. J. Gabriel, " Full Flood." Illustrated by about fifty limelight views. 
By Mr. C. C. Brittlebank, " The Miocene Rocks of Bacchus Marsh." 

5. Reading of Natural History Notes, 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

6. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 

Members are invited to hand to the Hon. Secretary, on 
or before Monday evening, July 13th, 1896, suggestions for 
Excursions for 1896=97. 

♦& EXCURSIONS. M* 

Saturday, i8th July. — Sandringham. Under the leadership of Mr. 
H. T. Tisdail, F.L. S. Start from Prince's Bridge station, at 1.40 p.m. 
Object : Fungi. 



MEETING FOR PRACTICAL WORK. 

The Monthly Meeting for Practical Work will be held on Monday evening, 
27th July, when Mr. J. Shephard will give a demonstration on Botanical 
Section Cutting and Staining. Members are requested to bring microscopes 
with a few slips and covers. 

Members are requested to see Naturalist for particulars of further meetings. 



W^ Vol. XIII.— No. 4. 




July, 1896. 



\t f kkfm Jldnwtist: 



THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 

— OF — 

% ht y«l& naturalists' Club of ^irtoria. 



PUBLISHED AUGUST 6, 1896. 



Editor: p. G. R. BflRflflRD, Esq. 



The Author of each article is responsible for the facts and opinions 

he records. 



COlsTTZEZEsTTS. 



The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria ... ... 45 

Excursion to Studley Park ... ... ... ... 46 

The Flight of Sea Birds. By H. R. Hogg, M.A. ... 48 

Remarks on a Wild Banana of New Guinea. By Baron 

von Mueller, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 53 

Ornithological Note — The Knot ... ... ... 55 

A Fungus on a Beetle. By D. M 'Alpine ... ... 56 



«8*»RICE SIXPENCE. *«♦ 



L 



^iKnto fcv (Bwvope ; 
DtJXAIT & CO,, 27 Soho Square, London. 

iHclboume : 

WALKER, MAY & CO., Printers, 9 Mackillop Street. 

1896. 



Field N a twa lists' Club of Vicfopia. 



ROOMS— ROYAL SOCIETY'S HALL, VICTORIA ST., MELBOURNE. 



BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 

Monday, lOtH August, X896, at 8 p.m.. 

i. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Sandringham from C. French, jun. 

2. Nominations for Membership. 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing the full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

3. General Business. 

4. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

By Mr. H. T. Tisdall, " Under Eastern Baw Baw." 
By Mr. R. Hall, " Box Hill Birds in July, 1896." 

5. Reading of Natural History Notes, 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

6. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 



«S* EXCURSIONS. B» 

Saturday, 22nd August. — Clayton to Oakleigh. Under the leadership 
of Messrs. J. Shephard and C. French, jun. Start from Prince's Bridge 
station, at 1.30 p.m. Object : Botany and Pond Life. 

Saturday, 5th September. Cheltenham. Under the leadership of C. 
French, F.L. S. Start from Prince's Bridge station, at 1.10 p.m. Object: 
Botany. 



MEETING FOR PRACTICAL WORK. 

The Monthly Meeting for Practical Work will be held on Monday evening, 
24th August, when Mr. T. S Hall, M.A. will give a demonstration on 
" Identification of some common rocks." 

Members are requested to see Naturalist for particulars of further meetings. 



Field Natupalisfs 1 Club of Victoria. 



patrons : 

BARON SIR F. VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph. D., LL.D., F.R.S 

SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

•* OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. *• 

President: professor Baldwin spencer, m.a. 

Wicespi-eatoenta : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 

*0n. XCreasurec : MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

tJOll. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

"IbOH. Secretary: MR. C. FRENCH, Jun, " Fernshawe,' Park Street, South Yarra. 

■ffson. JSoitor of tbe " Victorian HAaturalist : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee: MR. H. P. C. ASHWORTH, MR. D. BEST, MR. J. GABRIEL, F.L.S. 
MR. T. S. HALL, M.A., and MR. \V. STICKLAND. 



4* OBJECTS. ** 

This Club was founded in 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens ; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. 
Frost, East Kew) will be glad to receive such subscriptions as early as possible. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " Fernshawe," 
Park Street, South Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title page and index, 6/- per volume. 

The Hon. Ser. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2, 
3 and 4. 



PELTON, CRIMWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemieal and Scientific Apparatus, &e. 
STUDENTS* MICROSCOPES. 



LEITZ MICROSCOPES, 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



With Sliding Course Adjustment, Screw Fine 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Objectives JVos. 3 and 
7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3, Magnifying 84-60O. 
In Mahogany Cases. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 
Fine Adjustment, Double Minor, Side 
Condensing Lens, Fye-pieces Nos. 1 
and 3, Objectives Nos. 3 and 6, Glass Slip, Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 
Forceps, Magnifying 80-550. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass Slips, Sin, ac lin., Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Bough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, Nos. 1 and 3, %in., %in, and ~ = in. Circles. 
1 square, y^in. and %in, ; No. 3 square, y 2 in, and %in. 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to trke out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instruments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICBOSCOPI STS.-Hfl[icrometei? Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,OC0ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre - 5/- each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from £00 to 2,000 per mm. (=12,700 

to £0,800 per inch) - - - - - • . - 15/- „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch • To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D , S. & Co, 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. telephonf 848. 

Supplied by E. CHERRY & SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring Nets, - 3 6 and 4 6 Zinc Pocket Killing (Laurel) Boxes, 16 and 2/- Forceps, 26 
Cane or wire folding Nets, 6/- Entomological Pins (best), x 6 per 02. box. Brass Y's, 16 

Zinc larvae Boxes - 2- Cyanide Bottles. 2- 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves % deep— papered. 

1 and 1% wide, 1/. each. 2 arid v 1 a inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1/6. 4 inch, 1/9. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent by post any fart Australasia at trifling cost). 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 over all) with t2 assorted boards, 20/- 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially in ported, soft, % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 x 10, o,d. 15 x 12, i/j. 

16 x 20, 2'- 20 x 24, 3'- Any size to suit. 
STORE BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7/- each. 
CABINETS (ro to 40 drawers) for Insects, Eggs or Micro. Slides, in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English patteins. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entomologist. 



Field Nafri fs lists' Club of Victoria. 



patrons : 

BARON SIR F. VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph. D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

«* OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. *• 
ptcstoent: professor Baldwin spencer, m.a. 

Wicespresioents : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 

H30I1. {Treasurer: MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

Ifoon. librarian : MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

Ifoon. Secretary : MR. C. FRENCH, Jun., " Fernshawe," Park Street, South Yarra. 

Icon. Eoitor of tbe " Victorian Ittaturalist : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee: MR. H. P. C. ASHWORTH, MR. D. BEST, MR. J. GABRIEL, F.L.S, 
MR. T. S. HALL, M.A., and MR. VV. STICKLAND. 



& O B*f ECXS. fr 

This Club was founded in 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens ; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. 
Frost, East Kew) will be glad to receive such subscriptions. Any person desirous 
of resigning his membership is requested to notify the Hon. Secretary to that effect 
and return this Naturalist. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " Fernshawe," 
Park Street, South Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title page and index, 6/- per set. 

The Hon. Sec. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2, 
3 and 4. 



PELTON, CRIMWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemieal and Scientific Apparatus, &e. 

mTWMMmW^ MICROSCOPES. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw Fine 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Objectives Nos. 3 and 
7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3, Magnifying 84-GOO. 
In Mahogany Cases. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screiv 
Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing Lens, Eye-pieces Nos. 1 
and 3, Objectives Nos. 3 and 6, Glass Slip, Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 
Forceps, Magnifying SO-SSO. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass Slips, 3iu. x tin., Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Rough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, Nos. 1 and 3, %in., %in. and %in. Circles. 
1 square, %in. and %in. ; No. 3 square, %in. and %in. 



LEITZ MICROSCOPES, 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

DjfcVISS, SHEPHARD & ©€>., 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instruments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICROSCCPISTS.-Micrometer Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,0C0ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre ■ S/» each 

Do. both systems on one slide - .... 7/6- ,, 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2,000 per mm. (=12,700 

to 60,800 per inch) ......... 15/. „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest band, at the^rate of over 100,000 per inch - To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D , S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. tflfphonf 848. 

Supplied by E. CHERRY &. SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring Nets, - 3,6 and 4/6 Zinc Pocket Killing: (Laurel) Boxes, 1/6 and 2/- Forceps, 2/6 
Cane or wire folding- Nets, 6/- Entomological Pins (best), 1,6 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 16 
Zinc larvas Boxes - 2/- Cyanide Bottles, 2- 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves H deep T papered. 

1 and 1% wide, i/- each. 2 and 2% inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1,6. 4 inch, 1/9. 6 inch, z/o. 
(Any oj above sent by post any fart Australasia at trifling cost). 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 overall) with 12 assorted boards, 20 - 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially in ported, soft, % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 x 10, o.d. is x 12, 1/1 

16 x 20, 2/- 20 x 24, 3'- Any size to suit. 
STORE BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7/- each. 
CABINETS (10 to 40 drawers) for Insects, Eggs or Micro. Slides in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English patterns. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entomologist. 



Field Naturalists' Club of VicfoHa. 



Ipations : 

BARON SIR F. VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph. D., LL.D., F.R.S 

SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

•* OFFICE-BEARERS, 1895-6. *• 

prcsioent: PROFESSOR BALDWIN SPENCER, M.A. 
WicespiefliBentS : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 
t)0il. treasurer: MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

13011. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 
ftoil. Secretary: MR. H. P. C. ASHWORTH, Oxley Road, Glenferrie. 

Uon. Editor of. tbe " Victorian naturalist : " 

MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee: MR. D. BEST, MR. T. S. HALL, M.A.. MR. J. GABRIEL 
DR. VV. MACGILLIVRAY, and MR. F. WISEVVOULD. 



.& OBJECTS. J* 

This Club was founded in 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens ; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due, and must be paid on or before 
8th June, in order to entitle members to vote at the Annual Election of office-bearers 
which takes place on that day. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. Frost, East Kew) will 
be glad to receive such subscriptions. Any person desirous of resigning his member- 
ship is requested to notify the Hon. Secretary to that effect and return this Naturalist. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. H. P. C. Ashworth, Oxley 
Road, Glenferrie, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and IV.), with 
title page and index, 6/- per set. 

The Hon. Sec. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2, 
3 and 4. 



FELTON, CRIMWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemieal and Scientific Apparatus, Ste. 

STUDENTS' MICROSCOPES. 



LE1TZ MICROSCOPES, 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw Fine 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Objectives Xos. 3 and 
7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3, Magnifying 84-GOO. 
In Mahogany Cases. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 
Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing lens, Eye-pieces Kos. 1 
and 3, Objectives Nos. 3 and 6, Glass Slij), Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 
Forceps, Magnifying SO-550. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass Slips, Sin. x Tin., Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Hough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, I\'os. 1 and 3, l Ain., %in. and %in. Circles. 
1 square, %in. and %in. ; No. 3 square, %in, and %in. 



342-3 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

D4flli, SHEPHERD & CO,, 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instruments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICROSCCPISTS Micvometev Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,0C0ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre • 6/- each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2.000 per mm. (=12,700 

to 50,800 per inch) ......... 15/- „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch ■ To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D , S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. telephone 848. 

!MkT l f7Bjfr& HISTORY AFFARATWS, 

Supplied by E. CHERRY & SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring Nets, - 3,6 and 4 6 Zinc Pocket Killing (Laurel) Boxes, 1/6 and 2/- Forceps, 2/6 
Cane or wire folding Nets, 6/- Entomological Pins (best), 1,6 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 1 6 
Zinc larvae Boxes - 2- Cyanide Bottles. 2- 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves y& deep T papered. 

1 and z% wide, 1/- each. 2 and 2^ inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1/6. 4 inch, 1/9. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent by post any part Aitstralasia at trifling cost). 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 over all) with 12 assorted boards, 20'- 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially imported, soft, % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 x 10, od. 15 x 12, 1/1 

16 x 20, 2/- 20 x 24, 3'- Any size to suit. 
STORE BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7/- each. 
CABINETS (10 to 40 drawers) for Insects, Eggs or Micro. Slides, in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English patteins. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entomologist. 



Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. 



patrons : 

BARON SIR F. VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G., M. & Pu. D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

<* OFFICE-BEARERS, 189S-6. *■ 
president: professor Baldwin spencer, ma. 

Uicc=pi-esit>ents : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD \ 

13011. treasurer: MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

13011. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

*011. Secretary: MR. H. P. C. ASHVVORTH, Oxley Road, Glenferrie. 

Ijon. JEoitor of tbe " Wictorian Naturalist : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee: MR. D BEST, MR. T. S. HALL, M.A., MR. J. GABRIEL 
DR. W. MACGILLIVRAY, and MR. F. WISEWOULD. 



*f OBJECTS. *J> 

This Club was founded in 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens ; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



.Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due, and must be paid on or before 
Sth June, in order to entitle members to vote at the Annual Election of office-bearers 
which takes place on that day. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. Frost, East Kew) will 
be glad to receive such subscriptions. Any person desirous of resigning his member- 
ship is requested to notify the Hon. Secretary to that effect and return this Naturalist. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. H. P. C. Ashworth, Oxley 
Road, Glenferrie, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and IV.), with 
title page and index, 6/- per set. 

The Hon. Sec. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2, 
3 and 4. 



PELTON, CRIMWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemical and Seientifie Apparatus, Ste. 

STU"1EI»BT* ? MICROSCOPES. 



LEITZ MICROSCOPES, 



NACHET'S | MICROSCOPES, 



With Sliding Course Adjustment, Screw Fine 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Objectives Xos. 3 and 
7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3, Magnifying 84-600. 
In Mahogany Cases. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 
Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing Lens, Eye-pieces JVos. 1 
and 3, Objectives Nos. 3 and 6, Glass Slip, Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 
Forceps, Magnifying 80-550. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass Slips, Sin. x lin., Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Rough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, Nos. 1 and 3, yiin., %in. and %in. Circles. 
1 square, Y^in. and %in. ; No. 3 square, %in. and }{.in. 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

BABIES, SHEFHARD Sa CO., 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instruments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICKOSCOPI STS.-M icrometer Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOtlis and l,0C0ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre ■ 5/- each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2,000 per mm. (=12,700 

to 50,800 per inch) ......... 15/- „ 

Test Platelfor High-power Objectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch - To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D , S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrcnieiers issued by lending opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. tflfPHONE 848. 

Supplied by E. CHERRY & SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring- Nets, - 36 and 4 6 Zinc Pocket Killing (Laurel) Boxes, 1/6 and 2/- Forceps, 26 
Cane or wire folding- Nets, 6'- Entomological Pins (best), 1,6 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 1 6 
Zinc larvae Boxes - 2,- Cyanide Bottles, 2/- 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves % deep T papered. 

1 and J% wide, 1/- each. 2 and 2'/, inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1/6. 4 inch, 1/9. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent by post any part Australasia at trifling cost). 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 over all) with 12 assorted boards, 20 - 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially imported, soft. % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 x io, od. 15 x 12, 1/1 

16 x 20, 2/- 20 x 24, 3/- Any size to suit. 
STORE BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7/- each. 
CABINETS (10 to 40 drawers) for Insects, Eggs or Micro. Slides in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English 'patterns. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entomologist. 




Vol. XIII.— No. 5 




THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 

— OF — 

Win Jrelo Naturalists' Club of tfirtoria. 



PUBLISHED SEPTEMBER 10, 1896. 



Editor : p. G. R. Bfll^flSD, Esq. 



The Author of each article is responsible for the facts and opinions : 

he records. 



CCXLTTIEIETTS. 



The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria 

Ornithological Notes from Central Australia, Part I. 

By G. A. Keartland 

Eggs from North Queensland ... 

An Oologist's Re-union ... ... ... ■ 

Recent Publications 

A Catalogue of Victorian Heterocera, Part XXI. By 
Oswald B. Lower, F.E.S. ... 



•**»f*ICE SIXPENCE, if 



Agents fov (fbwvope \ 
DUJ,AtJ & CO., 37 Soho 



65 ; 



MzlbanvM : 
WALKER, MAY & CO., Printers, 9 Mackillop Street. 

1896, 





Field NafriFslisfs' Glob of Vicfopis. 



ROOMS— ROYAL SOCIETY'S HALL, VICTORIA ST., MELBOURNE. 



BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 

1VI o n cl ei y , 14th September, 1896, at 8 £>.m. 

c. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Clayton and Oakleigh, from Messrs. J. Shephard and 
C. French, jun. 

Report of Excursion to Cheltenham, from C. French. 

2. Election of Members. 

3. Nominations for Membership. 

Proposer. Seconder. 

Mr. J. Paul .. Mr. J. Haase Mr. C. French, jun. 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing the full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

4. General Business. 

5. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

By Mr. A. E. Kitson, " Geological Notes on the Toombullup Goldfield and 

adjacent country." 
By Mr. James H. Wright, " Mode of Wood Petrifaction." 
By Lt. Col. Legge, F.Z.S., &c, " Notes on a Sericornis from Kent Group." 

6. Reading of Natural History Notes, 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

7. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 



•JJ EXCURSIONS. *t> 

Saturday, 19TH September. — Mitcham. Under the leadership of 
Mr. G. Coghill. Start from Prince's Bridge station at 1.35 p.m. Object : 
Botany. 

Saturday, 3RD October. — Sandringham. Under the leadership of Mr. 
C. French, jun. Start from Flinders Street station at 1.40 p.m. Object : 
Botany. 

Saturday, 17TH October. — Ringwood. Under the leadership of Mr. 
G. H. F. Hill. Start from Prince's Bridge Station at 1.35 p.m. Object: 
Entomology and Botany. 



EXHIBITION OF WILD FLOWERS. 

In place of the usual practical evening it has been decided to 
hold an Exhibition of Wild Flowers on Monday evening, 28th 
September, 1896. Every member is kindly requested to exhibit, 
with a view to making the Exhibition a success. 




Vol. XIII.— No. 6. 



September, 1896 




t f ietekit JUftftftist: j 

THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 

— OF — 

®\n 3fai& Naturalists' Club ai tfirtoria. 



PUBLISHED OCTOBER 8, 1896. 



Editor: F- O. fl. BflR^flRD, Esq. 



The Author of each article is responsible for the facts and opinions 

he records. 



COUTEUTS. 

KAGE 

The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria ... ... 69 

Collecting in Riverina during Full Flood. By J. Gabriel 72 
Notes on the So-called Miocene Deposits of Bacchus 

Marsh. By C. C. Brittlebank .. ... ... 80 

Notes on a Sericornis from Kent Group. By Lieut. -Col. 

Legge, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., &c. ... ... ... ... 84 






•5**»I*ICE SIX F»E IX C E . &> 



^Igentd fov (Bxxvope • 

DULAU & CO,, 37 Soho Square, London. 

JKclbottrnc : 



WALKER, MAY & CO., Printers, 9 Mackillop Street 







1896. 




Field Nafupa lists' Club of Victoria. 

ROOMS— ROYAL SOCIETY'S HALL, VICTORIA ST., MELBOURNE. 
BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 

Monday, 12th October, X896, at 8 p.m. 

c. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Mitcham, from Mr. G. Coghill. 
Report of Excursion to Sandringham, from Mr. C. French, jun. 

2. Election of Members. 

3. Nominations for Membership. 

Proposer. Seconder. 

Miss A. Bell ... Mr. D. Le Souef ... Mr. A. Coles. 

Dr. C. Ryan ... Mr. D. Le Souef ... Mr. C. French, jun. 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing the full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

4. General Business. 

5. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

By Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A., "On some Recent Work in the Tertiary Rocks near 

Melbourne." 
By Mr. R. Hall, " Notes on the Plumage of Robins." 

6. Reading of Natural History Notes. 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

7. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Natttralist. 

4i EXCURSIONS. **» 

Saturday, 17TH October. — Ringwood. Under the leadership of 
Messrs. G. Coghill and C. French, jun. Start from Prince's Bridge Station 
a t 1.35 p.m. Object: Entomology and Botany. 

Tuesday, 3RD November. — Dandenong Ranges, via Croydon. Under 
the leadership of Mr. C. Frost. Start from Prince's Bridge Station at 7 a.m. 
Object : General Collecting. 

Monday, c/th November. — Berwick. Under the leadership of Mr. C. 
French, F.L.S. Start from Prince's Bridge Station at 7.50 a.m. Object: 
General Collecting. 



NOTICE. — Attention of members is drawn to the November 
meeting being held on the 16th instead of the gth November, that day 
being a public holiday. 

MEETING FOR PRACTICAL WORK. 

The monthly Meeting for Practical Work will be held on Monday evening, 
26th October, when Mr. W. Stickland will give a demonstration on 
"'Desmids: their Study and Classification." Members are requested to 
kindly bring their microscopes. 

Members are requested to see Naturalist for particulars of further meetings. 




Vol. XIII.— No. 7. 



October, 1896. 



THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 




1 iii 



®b* fidb Naturalists' Chib of Victoria. 



PUBLISHED NOVEMBER 5, 1896. 



editor : p. O. fl. BARNARD, Esq. 



( i" 

( |! 

( 1 

V an 

; i, 

( I- 

( III 



The Author of each article is responsible for the facts and opinions ( j 1 : 

he records. ) \" 



GOUTEUTS. 



The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria 

Exhibition of Wild Flowers 

Baron von Mueller 

Under Eastern Baw-Baw : a Botanical Trip in the 

Giitsland Mountains. By H. T. Tisdall. ... 
Notes on the Mode of Wood Petrifaction. By James 

H. Wright ... 
Notes on an Entomological Fungus. 
Note 



FAGE 
85 
85 
87 

93 

97 
99 
100 



•fcRRICE SIXPE W CE . *8» 




Amenta f 0V (Bxxvope : 

DULAU & CO., 37 Sob® Square, London, 

WALKER, MAY & CO., Printers, 9 Mackillop Street 

1896. 

£*-- - - 




Field Nafy pa lists' Club of Victoria. 



ROOMS— ROYAL SOCIETY'S HALL, VICTORIA ST., MELBOURNE. 



BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 

Monday; 16th Noirember, 1896, at, 8 p.m. 



i. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Mitcham, from Mr. G. Coghill. 
Report of Excursion to Sandringham, from Mr. C. French, jun. 
Report of Excursion to Ringwood. from Mr. C. French, jun. 
Report of Excursion to Dandenong Ranges, from Mr. C. Frost. 

2. Election of Members. 

3. Nominations for Membership. 

Proposer. Seconder. 

Miss A. Bell ... Mr. D. Le Souef ... Mr. A. Coles. 

Dr. C. Ryan ... Mr. D. Le Souef ... Mr. C. French, jun. 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing the full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

4. General Business. 

5. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

By Mr. T. S.Hall, M.A., "On some Recent Work in the Tertiary Rocks near 

Melbourne." 
By Mr. R. Hall, " Notes on the Plumage of Robins." 

6. Reading of Natural History Notes, 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

7. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 



<& EXCURSIONS. &> 

Monday, 9TH November. — Berwick. Under the leadership of Mr. C. 
French, F.L.S. Start from Prince's Bridge Station at 7.50 a.m. Object: 
General Collecting. 

Saturday, 21ST November. — Ringwood. Under the leadership of 
Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. Start from Prince's Bridge Station at 1.35 p.m. 
Object : Entomology and Botany. 

Saturday, 12th December. — Brighton. Under the leadership of Mr. 
J. Shephard. Start from Flinders Street Station at 1.40 p.m. Object • 
Pond Life. 



NOTICE. — Attention of members is drawn to the November 
meeting being held on the 16th instead of the gth November, that day 
being a public holiday. 




Vol. XIII.— No. 8. 



November, 1896. 




\t f ietwki Jldiwlist: 



THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 

— OF — 

%ht |F«ItJ naturalists' Club of Victoria. 



PUBLISHED DECEMBER 9, 1896. 



Editor : p. G. R. BfiR^flRD, Esq. 



The Author of each article is responsible for the facts and opinions 

he records. 



COISTTEITTS. 

PAGE 

The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria ... ... 101 

Box Hill Birds in July, 1896. By Robert Hall ... 103 

Geological Notes on the ToOiMBULLUP Goldfield and 

Adjacent Country. By A. E. Kitson ... ... 107 

Reliqui^; Muellerian/e : Descriptions of New Aus- 
tralian Plants in the Melbourne Herbarium. By 

J. G. Luebmann, F.L.S., Acting Curator ... ... m 



•fc*»J*ICE SIXPE W C E. B» 



Apeitte for (Bwrope • 
MW&AJU St CO., 37 Soh.o Square, London. 



Ittelbourne : 
WALKER, MAY & CO., Printers, 9 Mackillop Street. 



Field Naturalists' Glob of Vicfopia, 



ROOMS— ROYAL SOCIETY'S HALL, VICTORIA ST., MELBOURNE. 



BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 

Monday, 14th December, 1896, a,* 8 p>. *-»-». 

i. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Ringwood, from Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. 

2. Election of Members. 

3. Nominations for Membership. 

Proposer. Seconder. 

Mr. J. C. Neil ... Mr. C. French ... Mr. C. Frost 

Signor Bragato ... Mr. C. French ... Mr. C. French, jun. 

Mr. T. Scott ... Mr. C. French ... Mr. C. French, jun. 

Mr. J. E. Rutter .. Mr. F. L. Baker . Mr. D. Best 

Mr. J. H. Rutter... Mr. F. L. Baker ... Mr. D. Best 

Mr. C. F. Belcher Mr. D. Le Souef ... Mr. F. G. A. Barnard 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing the full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

4. General Business. 

5. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

1. — By Mr. R. Hall, " Notes on the Plumage of Robins." 

2. — By Mr. O. A. Sayce, " Karyokinetic Cell Divisions, with examples of various 

stages." 
3. — By Mr. J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., " Notes on a new Acacia." 

6. Reading of Natural History Notes. 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

7. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 



<& EXCURSION. ^ 

Saturday, 12TH December. — Heidelberg. Under the leadership of 
Mr. J. Shephard. Start from Collingwood Station at 2.15 p.m. Object : 
Pond Life. 



NOTICE. — Owing to the exceptionally dry season, 
it has been decided to change the Club excursion 
from Brighton to Heidelberg on Saturday, 12th 
December, 1896. 



Field Natu fs lists' Oliib of VicfoHa. 



patron : 
SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

■* OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. *■ 

lprcatoent: PROFESSOR BALDWIN SPENCER, M.A. 

lDice=piCSi6CHt3 : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 

1bon. XErcasuicr : MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

1bon. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

1foOH. Secretary: MR. C. FRENCH, Jan., " Fernshawe," Park Street, South Yana. 

•©on. Eottor of tbe " Wictorian Naturalist : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

(Committee: MR. D. BEST, MR. J. GABRIEL, MR. T. S. HALL, M.A.. 
MR. \V. STICKLAND and MR. G. SWEET, F.G.S. 



<& OBJECTS. B» 

This Club was founded in 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. 
Frost, East Kew) will be glad to receive such subscriptions as early as possible. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 18S4, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " Fernshawe," 
Park Street, South Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title page and index, 6/- per volume. 

The Hon. See. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2 
3 and 4- 



PELTON, CRiMWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemical and Scientific Apparatus, &e. 

STTFDEMTS' MICROSCOFES. 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw Fine 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Object ires Nos. 3 and 
7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3. Magnifying 84-600. 
In Mahogany Cases. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 
Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing Lens, Eye-pieces Nos. 1 
and S, Objectives Nos. 3 and 6, Class Slip, Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 
Forceps, Magnifying 80-550. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass Sli2)s, 3in. x Jin., Extra T/iin, Ground Edges and Hough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, Nos, 1 and 3, %in., %in. and %in. Circles, 
1 square, %in. and %in, } No. 3 square, %in, and %in. 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instruments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICROSCOPIST S.-Micrometer Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,0C0ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre - 6/- each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2,000 per mm. (=12,700 

to £0,800 per inch) - . •» . . . . . . . 15/. „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch - To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D., S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. telephone 848. 

I4frai£ HIif0E¥ APPABAfHi, 

Supplied by E. CHERRY & SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring Nets, - 3/6 and 4 6 Zinc Pocket Killing (Laurel) Boxes, 1/6 and 2/- Forceps, 2/6 
Cane or wire folding- Nets, 67- Entomological Pins (best), 1/6 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 16 
Zinc larvae Boxes - 2,'- Cyanide Bottles. 2- 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all.grooves % deep-papered. 

1 and 1% wide, 1/- each. 2 and 2% inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1/6. 4 inch, 1/9. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent by post any fart Australasia at trifling cost). 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 over all) with 12 assorted boards, 20'- 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially imported, soft, % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 x io, gd. 15 x 12, 1/1 

16 x 20, 2'- 20 x 24, 3/- Any size to suit. 
STORE BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7/- each. 
CABINETS (10 to 40 drawers) for Insects, Eggs or Micro. Slides, in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English patteins. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entomologist. 



Field fiafri pa lists' Club of Victoria. 



patrons : 

BARON SIR F. VON MUELLER. K.C.M.G., M. & Ph. D. ( LL.D., F.R.S. 

SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

« OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. *■ 

Pre3i&ent: PROFESSOR BALDWIN SPENCER. M.A. 

Wice=lPresiocnts : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 

•foon. ^Treasurer: MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

■fcon. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

1b0ll. Secretary: MR. C. FRENCH, Jun., " Fernshawe," Park Street, South Yarra. 

Don. E&itor of tbe " Victorian IRaturalist : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Hominittee: MR. H. P. C ASHWORTH, MR. D. BEST, MR. J. GABRIEL, 
MR. T. S. HALL, M.A., and MR. W. STICKLAND. 



** O B*i E CX S. #♦ 

This Club was founded in 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. 
Frost, East Kew) will be glad to receive such subscriptions as early as possible. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



\A OST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
' VI be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " Fernshawe," 
Park Street, South Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title page and index, 6/- per volume. 

The Hon. Sec. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2 
3 and 4. 



PELTON, CRIMWADE & (0., 

—-^ IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemical and Scientific Apparatus, 6te. 

STUDENTS' 9fECBOSCOF£S. 



LEITZ MICROSCOPES, 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw Fine 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Objectives Nos. 3 and 
7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3, Magnifying 84- GOO. 
Mahogany Cases. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 
Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing Lens, Eye-pieces Nos. 1 
and 3, Objectives Nos. 3 and 6, Glass Slip, Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 
Forceps, Magnifying 80-550. In Mahogany Cases. 

Microscopic Glass Slips, 3in. x lin., Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Hough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, Nos. 1 and 3, %in., %in. and %in. Circles. 
1 square, %i/n. and %in. ; No. 3 square, y 2 in. and y±in. 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

mMWEMWy IIIPIjIB© & CO., 

Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instruments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO WIICROSCOPISTS Micrometer Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, ICOths and l,000ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre ■ 5/. each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2,000 per mm. (=12,700 

to f 0,800 per inch) - • - - ■ ■■ . - 15/- „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch - To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J, Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D., S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. telephone 848. 

If AT-IOFIt&Ir S r I®TOEI , ¥' AFF^IMIi, 

Supplied by E. CHERRY 8c SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring: Nets, - 3,6 and 4/6 Zinc Pocket Killing- (Laurel) Boxes, 1/6 and 2/- Forceps, 2/6 
Cane or wire folding- Nets, 6/- Entomological Pins (best), 1/6 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 1/6 
Zinc larvae Boxes - 2 - Cyanide Bottles, 2'- 

COKK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves % deep— papered. 

1 and i% wide, i/- each. 2 and 2J4 inch. 1/3. 3 inch, 1/6. 4 inch, 1/9. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent by post any part Australasia at trifling cost}. 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 over all) with 12 assorted boards, 20'- 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially imported, -oft. % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 x 10, gd. 15 x 12, 1/1 

ifi x 20, 2/- 20 x 24, 3/- Any size to suit. 
STORF BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7 - each. 
CABIN FTS do to 40 drawers) for Insects Ecgs or Micro. Slides, in Cedar, Walnut, or 

M ahogany, from latest English p&teins. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entomologist. 



Field Nahi pa lists 1 Olub of Victoria, 



patrons : 

BARON SIR F. VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph. D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

•* OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. > 

prcatSent: PROFESSOR BALDWIN SPENCER, M.A. 

Wt«=|pi-e0i&ents : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 

f30n. {Treasurer: MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

l30n. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

fJOll. Secretary: MR. C. FRENCH, Tun., " Fernshawe," Park Street, South Varra. 

Ifoon. lEoitor of tbe "Victorian IRaturalfet : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee: mr. h. p. c ashworth, mr. d. best, mr. j. Gabriel, 

MR. T. S. HALL, M.A., and MR. W. STICKLAND. 



.# OBJECTS. $f» 

This Ci.ub was founded it] 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens ; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. 
Frost, East Kew) will be glad to receive such subscriptions as early as possible. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " Fernshawe" 
Park Street, South Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title page and index, 6/- per volume. 

The Hon. Ser. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2 
3 and 4. 



PELTON, CRIEVIWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemieal and Seientifie Apparatus, &e. 

STUDENTS' MICROSCOPES. 

rriT7~ Ifll On no PnnCO With SUaina Coarse Adjustment, Screw Fine 
Lhl 1 L IVUuKUouUr to, Adjtistment, Micrometer, Objectives Nos. 3 and 

■ 1 1 7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3, Magnifying 84-000. 

In Mahogany Cases, 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



Fine Adjustment, Uouble Mirror, Side 
Condensing Lens, Eye-pieces Nos. 1 
and 3, Objectives Nos. 3 and 6, Glass Slip, Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 
Forceps, Magnifying SO-SSO. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass .Slips, 3in. x Int.. Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Hough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, Nos. 1 and 3, %in., %in. and ~ in. Circles. 
1 square, %in, and J c in. } No. 3 square, l ?in. and %in. 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

IMlVIBS, IIEPIAID & ©0., 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instruments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICROSCOPI STS.-Micrometep Rulings. 

Stage Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,O0Otlis of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre ■ 5/« each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2.000 per mm. (=12,700 

to 50,800 per inch) ......... 15/- „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch ■ To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D., S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. telephone 848. 

NAf^BAi, m&iromr apparatus, 

Supplied by E. CHERRY & SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring Nets, - 3 6 and 4/6 Zinc Pocket Killing: (Laurel) Boxes, 1/6 and 2/- Forceps, 2 6 
Cane or wire folding Nets, 6/- Entomological Pins (best), 16 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 16 
Zinc larvae Boxes - 2/- Cyanide Bottles, 2 - 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves % deep^papered. 

1 and 1 y 2 wide, 1/- each. 2 and 2% inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1/6. 4 inch, 1/9. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent !<y post any fart Australasia at trifling cost). 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 over all) with 12 assorted boards, 20'- 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially imported, soft, % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 x 10, od. 15 x 12, 1/1 

16 x 20. 2 - 20 x 24, 3'- Any size to suit. 
STORE BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and pupered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7 - each. 
CABINETS (10 to 40 drawers) for Insects, Ecr.s or Micro. Slides, in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English patterns. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entomologist. 



Field Naftj ps lists' (Hub of Victoria. 



patrons : 

KARON SIR F. VON MUELLER, K.C.M.G., M. & Ph. D., LL.U., F.R.S. 

SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



•* OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. *• 

prCSi&ent: PROFESSOR BALDWIN SPENCER, M.A. 

BMcespresioenta : mr. c. French, f.l.s. mr. j. shephard 

l30n. treasurer: MR. C FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

t)on. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn 

13011. Secretary: MR. C. FRENCH, Jun., " Fernshawe,' Park Street, South Yarra. 

lion. Eoitor of tbc " Victorian naturalist : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee: MR. H. P. C. ASHWORTH, MR. D. BEST, MR. J. GABRIEL, 
MR. T. S. HALL, M.A., and MR. W. STICKLAND. 



•tf O B»I ECTS. *fr 

This Club was founded in 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens ; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. 
Frost, East Kew) will be glad to receive such subscriptions as early as possible. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " Fernshawe," 
Park Street, South Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title page and index, 6/- per volume. 

The Hon. Sec. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2, 
3 and 4. 



fELTON, CRIMWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemie^T^gnd Scientific Apparatus, &e. 
SftJSENTS' MICROSC0FE§. 



LEITZ MICROSCOPES, 



With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Sffrew Fine 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Objectives Nos. 3 and 
7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3, Magnifying 84-GOO. 
In Mahogany Cases. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 
Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing Lens, Eye-pieces Nos. 1 
and 3, Objectives Nos. 3 and 6, Class Slip, Cover Classes, Mounted Object 
Forceps, Magnifying 80-5S0. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass Slips, 3in. x lin., Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Rough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, Nos. 1 and 3, %in., Yin. and %in. Circles. 
1 square, %in. and %in. f No. 3 square, l / 2 in. and %in. 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instruments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICEOSCOPISTS.-Mici'ometei* Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,0C0ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre ■ 5/« each 

Do. both systems on one slide ■ - .... 7/6 ,, 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2.000 per mm. (=12,700 

to 50,800 per inch) ......... IB/- „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest baud, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch - To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D., S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. telephone 848, 

Supplied by E. CHERRY 8c SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring Nets, - 3,6 and 4/6 Zinc Pocket Killing: (Laurel) Boxes, 1/6 and 2/- Forceps, 2 6 
Cane or wire folding Nets, 6/- Entomological Pins (best), 16 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 1.6 
Zinc larva? Boxes - 2- Cyanide Bottles, 2 '- 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves % deep T papered. 

1 and 1% wide, i/- each. 2 and 2% inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1,6. 4 inch, 1/9. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent by post any part Australasia at trifling- cost J. 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (i S x 13 x 4 over all) with t2 assorted boards, 20 - 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially in ported, soft, % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 x 10, o,d. 15 x 12, 1/1 

16 x 20. a/- 20 x 24, 3- Any size to suit. 
STORE BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7/. each. 
CABINETS do to 40 drawers) for Tnsfcts. Eggs or Micro. Slides, in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English patteins. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entoim I igist. 




Vol. XIII.— No. 9. 



December, 1896 



\t f uiztm jJUtofjtti 

THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 



i%\w JFtati Naturalists' ®htb of Victoria. 




PUBLISHED JANUARY 7, 1897. 



Edito* : F- G. A. BfllRJ^flRD, Esq. 



The Author of each article is responsible for the facts and opinions 

he records. 

COlsTTElTTS. 



The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria 
Notes ok Plumage of Robins. By Robert Hall 
Reliqui.*; Muellerian/E : Descriptions of New Australian 

Plants in the National Herbarium, Melbourne. 

By J. G. Luehmann, F.L.S., Curator 
Notes on the Life-History of Iai. menus Myrsilus 
Notes 
Recent Publications ... .... 

A Catalogue of Victorian Heterocera. Part XXII. By 
Oswald 15. Lower, F.E.S. ... 



"5 



4} PRICE SIXPENCE. *«» 



117 


?! = 






118 


) I 1 "! 






ii9 


V imi 






120 


• • 




• • 




• ■ 


121 


. . 








1 imi 




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... 











AiU'iitts fav (Bxxvope : 
DULAtJ & CO., 37 Soho Square, London. 



( i 




iHtlbonrnc : 

WALKER, MAY cV CO., Printers, 9 Mackilloi- St 

1897. 




Field NafriPslisfs' Club of Victoria. 



ROOMS— ROYAL SOCIETY'S HALL, VICTORIA ST., MELBOURNE. 



BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 
Monday, 8th February, 1897, at 8 p.m. 

1. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Nar-Nar-Goon, from Mr. H. Giles. 

Report of Excursion to Fern Tree Gully, from Mr. F. G. A. Barnard. 

Report of Excursion to Beaumaris, from Mr. J. Shephard. 

2. Election of Members. 

3. Nominations for Membership. 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing tne full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

4. General Business. 

5. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

By Mr. D. Le Souef— " Notes on a Trip to the Bloomfield River, Queensland." 
(Illustrated with limelight views.) 

6. Reading of Natural History Notes, 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

7. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 



♦J* EXCURSIONS. &> 

Saturday, 6th February. — Beaumaris. Under the leadership of Mr. 
J. Shephard. Start from Flinders Street Station at 1.40 p.m. Object : 
Marine Zoology. 

Saturday, 20TH February. — Heidelberg. Under the leadership of 
Mr. W. Stickland. Start from Collingwood Station at 2.15p.m. Object: 
Pond Life. 




Vol. XIII.— No. ii. 



February, 1897 



%t fietaki 




THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 



®bi? ifalb naturalists' Club of Victoria. 



PUBLISHED MARCH 4, 1897. 
Editor : F. O. R. BflRjSflRD, Esq. 



The Author of each article is responsible for the facts and opinions > 

he records. 



COlTTElsTTS. 

The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria 

The Late T. A. Forbes-Leith 

Excursion to Nar-Nar-Goon 

Excursion to Ferntree Gully ... 

Description of the Nest of the Rifle-Bird. By A. J. 
Campbell ... ... ... 

Contributions to the Flora of Victoria, No. I. By 
F. M. Reader 

Reliqul^e Muellerian^e : Descriptions of New Austra- 
lian Plants in the National Herbarium, Melbourne. 
By J. G. Luehmann ... 

Note 



4IPRICE SIXPENCE. * 



137 
i39 
139 
142 

145 
146 

i47 
147 



gCgettta for <fb\xvope • 
DTJLATJ 9t CO,, 37 Soho Square, London. 

JHdbonrnc : 
WALKER, MAY & CO., Printers, 9 Mackillop Street 

1897. 





Field Natu pa lists' Club of Victoria. 

ROOMS— ROYAL SOCIETY'S HALL, VICTORIA ST., MELBOURNE. 



BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 
Monday, 8th March, 1897, at 8 P- m - 

1 Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Heidelberg, from Mr. W. Stickland. 

2. Election of Members. 

3. Nominations for Membership. 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing tne full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

4. General Business. 

5. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

1. "Contributions to the Flora of Victoria, part ii." By Mr. F. M. Reader; 

communicated by Mr. C. Frost, F.L.S. 

2. " Two rare nests and eggs of Australian Birds." By Mr. A. J. Campbell : 

communicated by Mr. D. Le Souef. 

3. By Mr. D. Le Souef— " Notes on a Trip to the Bloomfield River, Queensland." 
Continued. I Illustrated with limelight views.) 

6. Reading of Natural History Notes 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

7. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested 10 furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 



♦S* EXCURSIONS. $» 

Saturday, 13TH March.— Hatherley, for Kororoit Creek. Under the 
leadership of Mr. W. Stickland. Start from Spencer Street Station at 1.50 
p.m. Object : Pond Life. 

Saturday, ioth April. 1 896. — Coburg. Under the leadership of 
Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A. Meet Tram terminus, Elizabeth Street, 2 p.m. 
Object : Geology. 



SPECIAL ztrorrxciE. 

In addition to the usual Exhibits, Special Exhibits of Insects collected 
during the season 1896-7 are invited for the April meeting. 

Exhibits of Native Flowers are greatly desired at each monthly meeting. 



Vol. XIII.— No. 12. 




. ■ a., a ..a a .a a .a a.i.a a a a ■ a a 



March-April, 1897 




i\t f tetarki jjUtotist: 

THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 

— OF — 

%\lt fidb Naturalists' ©lub of Uutorta. 



PUBLISHED APRIL 8, 1897. 



V \ ' 



I 






Editor : F- G. R. BflR^flKD, Esq. 



The Author of each article is responsible for the facts and opinions 

he records. 



OOZKTTIEIISrTS. 

The Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria 

Notes on the Occurrence of Eucalyptus Maculata. By 

A. W. Howitt, F.G.S. 
Ascent of Mt. Peter Botte, North Queensland. By 

D. Le Souef 
Contributions to the Flora of Victoria, No. II. By 

F. M. Reader 

ReI.IOULE MUELLERIANiE : DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW* AUSTRA- 
LIAN Plants in the National Herbarium. Melbourne. 
By J. G. Luehmann, F.I..S. ... 







lions 






■ ■ 




! | 




v imi 




! ! 


PACK 


) . i 


149 






• • 




\ i i 


I50 


! ■ 




■'"■ 




; ijlis 


151 


\ \ 




■ i 




■ ■ 


l67 


■ ■ 




< iiiis 



168 



•#?»¥* I C E SIXPENCE, i* 



Aiu-nto fov t&vivope ; 
DUtAU & CO., 37 Soho Square, London. 

jKclbonrnc : 
2k WALKER, MAY & CO., Printers, 9 Mackillop Street 

1897. 





Field Nafii pa lists' Glob of Victoria. 

ROOMS— ROYAL SOCIETY'S HALL, VICTORIA ST., MELBOURNE. 



BUSINESS PAPER FOR MONTHLY MEETING. 
Monday, 12th April, 1897, at Eight p.m. 



1. Correspondence and Reports. 

Report of Excursion to Hatherley (for Kororoit Creek), from Mr. W. Stickland. 
Report of Excursion to Coburg, from Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A. 

2. Election of Members. 

3. Nominations for Membership. 

Members making nominations will oblige by handing tne full name and address to 
Hon. Secretary. 

4. General Business. 

5. Reading of Papers and Discussions thereon. 

i.— By Mr. H. T. Tisdall, "A Botanical Peep into the Rocky Pools of Sorrento 
and Queenscliff." 

2.— By Mr. R. Hall, " Bird Fauna of the Box Hill District : The Warblers." 

6. Reading of Natural History Notes 

Members who may note any unusual occurrence, or see anything of interest in 
Foreign or Colonial papers, are requested to mention the same at our meetings 
for the purpose of discussion. 

7. Exhibition of Specimens and Conversazione. 

Members exhibiting specimens are requested to furnish the Hon. Sec. with written 
particulars of their Exhibits, for record in Minutes and Naturalist. 



«S* EXCURSIONS. &> 

Saturday, ioth April. 1897.— Coburg. Under the leadership of 
Mr. T. S. Hall, M.A. Meet Tram terminus, Elizabeth Street, 2 p.m. 
Object : Geology. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 

In addition to the usual Exhibits, Special Exhibits of Insects collected 
during the last twelve months are invited for the April meeting. 

Exhibits of Native Flowers are greatly desired at each monthly meeting. 



Field Naturalists' Olub of Victoria. 



patron : 
SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 



•* OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. *> 

preaiOent: PROFESSOR BALDWIN SPENCER, M.A. 

IDicespreeioents : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 

13011. {Treasurer: MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

Ibon. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

*on. Secretary: MR. C. FRENCH, Jun., " Fernshawe," Park Street, South Yarra. 

Ibon. lEoitor of tbe " Wictorian TOaturalfat : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee : MR. D. BEST, MR. J. GABRIEL, MR. T. S. HALL, M.A., 
MR. \V. STICKLAND and MR. G. SWEET, F.G.S. 



4* OBJECTS, w 

This Club was founded iu 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens ; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various' collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
any subscriptions (if)».) for 1896-97 still unpaid should be forwarded to the Hon. 
Treasurer (Mr. C. Frost, East Kew) as early as possible. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



Authors of Papers published in the Victorian Naturalist are informed that 
reprints of such articles can be obtained at a nominal cost by giving notice previous 
to publication to the Hon. Sec, from whom all information can be obtained. 

MOST ot the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " Fernshawe," 
Park Street, South Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title page and index, 6/- per volume. 

The Hon. Sec. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2, 
3 and 4. 



PELTON, CRIMWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS CF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemical and Seientifie Apparatus, Ste. 

STUDENTS' MICROSCOPES. 



ILEITZ "MICROSCOPES, 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw Ftne 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Objectives Xos, 3 and 
7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3. Magnifying S4-000. 
In Mahogany Cases, 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 
Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing Lens, Eye-pieces Xos. 1 

and 3, Objectives Kos. 3 and 6. Glass Slip, Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 

Forceps, Magnifying 80-5SO. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass Slips, 3in, x lin,, Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Hough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, Nos. 1 and 3, V 2 in., %in. and %in. Circles. 
1 square, %in. and %in. ; No. 3 square, %in. and %in. 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

m&kWIMBi SHEP1ARD & CO., 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instiuments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICEOSCCPISTS.-Mierometer Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,0G0tlis of an inch, or lOtlis and lOOths of a millimetre • 5/- each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2.000 per mm. (=12,700 

to £0,800 per inch) ......... 16/- „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch - To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D , S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. -flephone 848. 

Supplied by E. CHFRRY &. SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring Nets, - 3,6 and 46 Zinc Pocket Killing (Laurel) Boxes, 1 6 and 2/- Forceps, 2/6 
Cane or wire folding Nets, 6/- Entomological Pins (best), 1 6 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 1/6 

Zinc larvse Boxes • 2 - Cyanide Bottles, 2 - 

COFK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves % deep- papered. 

1 and i}4 wide, /- each. 2 and 2- inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1,6. 4 inch, i/g. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent by post any part Australasia at trifling cost), 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 over alll with 12 assorted boards, 20'- 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially i- ported, -n't, % thick), 10 x 8 6d. 12 x 10, od. 15 x 12, 1/1. 

16 x 20. 2'- 70 x 24. 3 - Any -ize to suit. 
ST^FF BOXES, 14 x 10x4, corkfd and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye. 7 - each 
CAFINFTS <io to 40 drawers') for Inskcts, Eggs or Micro. Plidfs in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English pattems. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Ent mologist. 



Field Naf-u pa lists' Olub of Victoria, 



patton : 
SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

■* OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. * 

president: PROFESSOR BALDWIN SPENCER, M.A. 

lDiCC=pceeiJ>entS : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 

t)0)l. treasurer : MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

Ibon. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

Don. Secretary: MR. C. FRENCH, Jun., " Fernshawe," Park Street, South Yarra. 

1foon. fioitor of tbe " Victorian IRaturalist : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee: MR. D. BEST, MR. J. GABRIEL, MR. T. S. HALL, M.A. 
MR. W. STICKLAND and MR. G. SWEET, F.G.S. 



<$ O B,J ECXS. &> 

This Club was founded in 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens ; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. 
Frost, East Kew) will be glad to receive such subscriptions as early as possible. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST ot the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " F ernshawe,' 
Park btreet, South Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title pa^e and index, 6/- per volume. 

The Hon. Spc. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2, 
3 and 4. 



FELTON, CRIMWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemical and Seientifie Apparatus, &e. 

STUDENTS' MICROSCOFES. 

1- _-,_,_ j yinnAArfrtnPA I With Sliding Course Adjustment, Screw Fine 
iLhl 1 L ' MluKuQuUP Eu, Adjustment. Micrometer, Objectives Noa. 3 and 

I ' — -' 7, Eye-pieces J and 3. Magnifying S4-000. 

In Mahogany ('uses. 

With Sliding Course Adjustment, Screw 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing lens, Eye-pieces Nos, 1 

und 3, Objectives Nos, 3 end a. Glass Slip, Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 
Forceps, Magnifying 80-550. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass Slips, Sin. x Jin., Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Rough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, A'os. J and 3, %in., y A in. and %in. Circles. 
I square, %in. and ~ in. ; No. 3 square, l / 2 in. and %in. 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

DATIEi, SKEPBAIB & CO., 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instruments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICROSCOPISTS Micrometer Rulings. 

Stage Micrometers Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,0C0ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre - 6/- each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-rower Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2.000 per mm. (=12,700 

to 50,800 per inch) ......... 15/- „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch - To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D , S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

'35 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. telephone 848. 

Supplied by E. CHERRY &. SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring: Nets, - 3/6 and 4 6 Zinc Pocket Killing- (Laurel) Boxes, 1 6 and 2/- Forceps, 2/6 
Cane or wire folding Nets, 6,'- Entomological Pins (best), 1 6 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 1 6 

Zinc larvae Boxes - 2- Cyanide Bottles. 2- 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves % deep- papered. 

1 and \ l /> wide, i/- each. 2 and 2H inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1,6. 4 inch, 19. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent l>y post any patt Australasia at trifling erst J. 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (r 5 x 13 x 4 oxer all) with 12 assorted boards, 20 - 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially in ported, soft. % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 -\ 10, od. 15 x 12, i/r 

16 x 20. 2/- 20 x 24, 3 - Any size to suit. 
STOPF BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye. 7'- each. 
CABIN FTS (10 to 40 drawers) for Insects, Egos or Micro. Slides in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English patterns. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entomologist. 



Field Naturalists' Club o? Victoria. 



patron : 
SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

** OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. *■ 
president: professor Baldwin spencer, m.a. 

Wice=pie8l&ent8 : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 

■foon. treasurer: MR. C. FROST, Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

1)3n. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

■bon. Secretary: MR. C. FRENCH, Jun., " Fernshawe,' Park Street, South Yarra. 

■toon. lEottor of tbe " Wictoiian IHaturalist : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee: MR. D. BEST, MR. J. GABRIEL, MR. T. S. HALL, M.A. 
MR. \V. STICKLAND and MR. G. SWEET, F.G.S. 



<& O Bj E CX S. fr 

This Club was founded iu 1880 for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens; and for promoting Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (15s.) for 1896-97 are now due. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. 
Krost, East Kew) will be glad to receive such subscriptions as early as possible. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " Fernshawe," 
Park btieet, bouth Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title r>af* and index, 6/- per volume. 

The Hon. S*»c. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2. 
3 and 4. 



PELTON, CRIMWADE & (0., 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemical and Scientific Apparatus, &e. 

STUDENTS' MICROSCOPES. 



plTZ I MICROSCOPES, 



With Sliditif/ Coarse Adjustment, Screw Fine 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Objectives Xos. 3 and 
7, Eye-pieces 1 and 3, Magnifying 84-600. 
J ii M ahoy any Cams. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 



NACHET'S I MICROSCOPES, 



Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing Lens, Eye-pieces Nos. 1 

and o, Objectives Aos. 3 ami (i. Glass Slip, Cover Classes, Mounted Object 

Forceps, Magnifying 80-880. In Mahogany Cases, 

Microscopic Glass Slips, 3in. X tin., Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Rough 
Edges. 

Mici oscopie Corey Glasses, Aos. I and 3, \iin,., %in. and %in. Circles. 
1 square, %in. and %in. } JVo. 3 square, %in. and %in. 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

DATIES, IIEFHAID & CO., 
Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to t; ke out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instiuments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICEOSCOPISTS.-Micrometer Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,0C0ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre ■ 5/- each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, 7 bands, varying from 500 to 2,000 rer mm. (=12,700 

to £0,800 per inch) • - - - - ■ . - 15/- „ 

Test Plate for High-power Objectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch ■ To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D , S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrcmeters issued by leading" opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. telephone 848. 

lAflBAL HISirOHTr APPARATUS, 

Supplied by E. CHERRY & SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring Nets, - 36 and 4 6 Zinc Pocket Killing (Laurel) Boxes, 1 6 and 2/- Forceps, 2/6 
Cane or wire folding Nets, 6'- Entomological Pins (best), 1 6 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 16 

Zinc larvae Boxes - 2,- Cyanide Bottles. 2- 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves % deep- pppered. 

1 and i]/i wide, ./- each. 2 and 2V7 inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 1,6. 4 inch, 19. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent by post any part Australasia at trifling cost J. 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 over all) with 12 assorted boards, 20- 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially imported, soft, % thick), 10 x 8, 6d. 12 x 10, od. 15 x 12, 1/1 

16 x 20. 2, - 20 x 24, 3'- Any size to suit. 
STORE BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and papered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7'- each. 
CABINETS (10 to 40 drawers) for Insects, Eggs or Micro. Slidfs in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English patteins. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University and Government Entomologist. 



Field NatupaIists J (Hub of Victoria 



patron : 
SIR FREDERICK M'COY, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, F.R.S. 

* OFFICE-BEARERS, 1896-7. *• 

president: PROFESSOR BALDWIN SPENCER. MA. 

HJice=presioent3 : MR. C. FRENCH, F.L.S. MR. J. SHEPHARD 

t»on. ^Treasurer : MR. C. FROST. Mont Victor Road, East Kew. 

1bon. librarian: MR. O. A. SAYCE, Harcourt Street, Hawthorn. 

■fcon. Secretary: MR. C. FRENCH, Jun, " Fernshawe,' Park Street, South Yarra. 

1bon. EMtor of tbe " IDictoiian naturalist : " 
MR. F. G. A. BARNARD. Bulleen Road, Kew. 

Committee: MR. D. BEST, MR. J. GABRIEL, MR. T. S. HALL, M.A., 
MR. \V. STICKLAND and MR. G. SWEET, F.C..S. 



& O B»l ECXS. *S> 

I'his Club was founded in t88o for the purpose of affording observers and lovers of Natural 
History regular and frequent opportunities for discussing those special subjects in which they 
are mutually interested ; for the Exhibition of Specimens ; and for promoting; Observations 
in the Field by means of Excursions to various collecting grounds around the Metropolis. 



SPECIAL NOTICE. 



Members are reminded that the Club's year ended on 30th April last, and that 
subscriptions (ij».) for 1896-97 are now due. The Hon. Treasurer (Mr. C. 
Frost, East Kew) will be glad to receive such subscriptions as early as possible. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Contains the proceedings of the Field Naturalists' Club 
of Victoria. 



MOST of the Numbers from the commencement, January, 1884, can 
be obtained from the Hon. Sec, Mr. C. French, jun., " Fernshawe,'' 
Park Mieet. south Yarra, at Sixpence each, or in sets (except Vols. I. and 
IV.), with title nap-* and index, 6/- per volume. 

The Hon S*»c. will pay full price for clean copies of Vol. IV. Nos. 2. 
3 and 4. 



PELTON, CRSMWADE & (0, 

IMPORTERS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 

MICROSCOPES, GALVANIC BATTERIES, 

Chemieal and Scientific Apparatus, &e. 
ifllII.fS' MICROSCOPES. 



LE1TZ MICROSCOPES, 



With Slidinu Course Adjustment, Screw Fine 
Adjustment, Micrometer, Objectives Nos. 3 und 
7, Bye-pieces 1 and 3, Magnifying 84-600. 

In Mahogany Cases. 

With Sliding Coarse Adjustment, Screw 



NACHET'S MICROSCOPES, 



Fine Adjustment, Double Mirror, Side 
Condensing Lens, Fye-pieees Nos. 1 

and 3. Objectives Nos. 3 and 6, ti/ass Slip, Cover Glasses, Mounted Object 

Forceps, Magnifying SO-SSO. In Mahogany Cases. 

Microscopic Glass Slips, Sin,, as Uti., Extra Thin, Ground Edges and Hough 
Edges. 

Microscopic Cover Glasses, Nos. 1 and 3, %in., %in. and %in. Circles. 
1 square, y±in. and %in.; No. 3 square, ' 2 iu. (did %in. 



342-6 LITTLE FLINDERS STREET, MELBOURNE. 

DATI1§, mMMWMMmm & CO., 

Manufacturers of Water Meters, Turret Clocks, &c, &c. 

Repairs and alterations undertaken. Men sent to any suburb to take out Meters 

for repair. Microscopes and Scientific Instiuments repaired. 

Wheels and Racks of all kinds cut to order. Circular Dividing. 

TO MICROSCOPISTS.-Micrometev Rulings. 

Stace Micrometers. Eye-piece Micrometers, and Test Plates. 

Stage Micrometer, lOOths and l,0C0ths of an inch, or lOths and lOOths of a millimetre ■ 5/- each 

Do. both systems on one slide ...... 7/6 „ 

Test Plate for Medium-power Objectives, V bands, varying from 500 to 2.000 per mm. (=^12,700 

to 50,800 per inch) ......... is/- „ 

Test Plate for High-power 0' iectives, finest band, at the rate of over 100,000 per inch ■ To order. 

These rulings are executed by Mr. J. Shephard, on a machine specially designed and constructed by D., S. & Co. 
Comparison with micrometers issued by leading opticians of England and America shows the imported article 
to be less accurate. 

135 CITY ROAD. SOUTH MELBOURNE. telephone 848, 

Supplied by E. CHERRY & SONS, Gisborne, Victoria. 

Cane ring- Nets, - 3,6 and 4/6 Zinc Pocket Killing (Laurel) Boxes, 1/6 and 2/- Forceps, 2/6 
Cane or wire folding Nets, 6,'- Entomological Pins (best), 16 per oz. box. Brass Y's, 1 6 
Zinc larvae Boxes - 2- Cyanide Bottles, 2- 

CORK SETTING BOARDS, length, 14 inches— all grooves ft, deep T papered. 

1 and 1% wide, 1/- each. 2 and 2% inch, 1/3. 3 inch, 16. 4 inch, 1/9. 6 inch, 2/0. 
(Any oj above sent by post tiny part Aitstralasia at trifling cost). 
TRAVELLING SETTING CASE, (15 x 13 x 4 over all) with 12 assorted boards, 20 - 
CORK LINOLEUM (specially in ported, soft, ft thick), to x 8, 6d. 12 x ro, od. 15 x 12, 1/1 

16 x 20, 2/- 20 x 24, 3- Any size to suit. 
STORE BOXES, 14 x 10 x 4, corked and peered both sides, hinged and fastened with hook and 

eye, 7- each. 
CABINETS (10 to 40 drawers) for Iks; s, Eggs or Micro. Slides, in Cedar, Walnut, or 

Mahogany, from latest English pa.teins. For samples of our work visit Melbourne 

University, and Government Entomologist. n\ 




sy^SSTiVi 



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., . 



*fei£«k Vw 



AMNH LIBRARY 




100076745